This paper challenges the traditional assumption that descriptive and prescriptive sciences are essentially distinct by presenting a study on the implicit normativity of the production and presentation of biomedical scientific facts within evidence-based medicine. This interdisciplinary study serves as an illustration of the potential worth of the concept of implicit normativity for bioethics in general and for integrated empirical ethics research in particular. It demonstrates how both the production and presentation of scientific information in an evidence-based decision-support contain implicit presuppositions (...) and values, which pre-structure the moral environment of the clinical process of decision-making. As a consequence, the evidence-based decision support did not only support the clinical decision-making process; it also transformed it in a morally significant way. This phenomenon undermines the assumption within much of the literature on patient autonomy that information disclosure is a conditional requirement before patient autonomy even starts; patient autonomy is already influenced during the production and presentation of information. These results imply an increased responsibility of those who produce and present evidence-based facts. The insights of this study not only involve a different focus on both theory and practice of patient autonomy and informed consent, but they also call for a broader scope of morality than does traditional empirical research in bioethics. The concept of implicit normativity within integrated empirical ethics research calls for a strong cooperation between bioethicists and descriptive scientists, i.e., a cooperation that goes beyond the discipline-specific epistemic values and that takes place during all phases of the research process. (shrink)
Leslie, E. A. Albert Cornelius Knudson, the man.--McConnell, F. J. Bowne and personalism.--Brightman, E. S. Personality as a metaphysical principle.--Hildebrand, C. D. Personalism and nature.--Ramsdell, E. T. The cultural integration of science and religion.--Ensley, F. G. The personality of God.--Harkness, G. Divine sovereignity and human freedom.--Pfeiffer, R. H. Personalistic elements in the Old Testament.--Flewelling, R. T. Personalism and the trend of history.--Muelder, W. G. Personality and Christian ethics.--King, W. J. Personalism and race.--Marlatt, E. B. Personalism and religious education.
Pierce challenges the argument that economic sanctions are always morally preferable to the use of military force. He argues that such sanctions inflict suffering and physical harm on noncombatants and that small-scale military operations are sometimes preferable.
For much of the past two millennia philosophers have embraced a priori knowledge and have thought that the a priori plays an important role in philosophy itself. Philosophers from Plato to Descartes, Kant to Kripke, all endorse the a priori and engage in a priori reasoning in their philosophical discussions. Recent work in epistemology and experimental philosophy, however, has raised questions about both the existence of a priori knowledge and the centrality of the a priori for philosophy. This collection of (...) essays aims to advance the discussion of the a priori and its role in philosophy. The contributors include a mix of young and established philosophers, including some of the most prominent voices in philosophy today. (shrink)
Hermann Grassmann's ideas on the nature and foundations of mathematics were published as an integral part of his mathematical treatise, the Ausdehnungslehre, in 1844. In spite of its notoriously obscure style we can better understand the work if we view it as an expression of the dialectical philosophy of his mentor, the theologian F. Schleiermacher. The relation to Schleiermacher is presented here through an analysis of the principal ideas of the Ausdehnungslehre.
Hermann Grassmann's Ausdehnungslehre of 1844 and his Lehrbuch der Arithmetik of 1861 are landmark works in mathematics; the former not only developed new mathematical fields but also both contributed to the setting of modern standards of rigor. Their very modernity, however, may obscure features of Grassmann's view of the foundations of mathematics that were not adopted since. Grassmann gave a key role to the learning of mathematics that affected his method of presentation, including his emphasis on making initial assumptions explicit. (...) In order to better understand this less well-known aspect of his work it will help to examine why some commentators have overlooked his theme of unifying logic, pedagogy and foundations, while others have recognised it. (shrink)
Milton's influence upon poets and poetry has been broadly and specifically studied often in collections of essays. The present volume of original essays, by emphasizing and classifying Milton's influence on the arts other than poetry, is a significant addition to interdisciplinary scholarship. The editors choose to interpret John Good's words literally—Milton's influence "was powerfully felt upon all the multiplied forms and phases of eighteenth century life"—and to examine the implications of that assertion even into twentieth-century life. No other volume considers (...) the certainty or possibility of Milton's influence on arts as diverse as oratorio, opera, drama, dance, book illustration, sculpture, and landscape architecture. Beyond Milton's well-documented influence on poets and poetry, the contributors focus their attention on the other arts and other creative artists whose imaginations were nevertheless affected by the poet Milton, at times profoundly so. Their chief aim is to be representative, not fully comprehensive, in defining, describing, and demonstrating the manifold influence of Milton on the other arts. A related aim is to motivate others to do likewise. Divided into three parts—Milton and book illustrations, Milton and the performing arts, and Milton and the philosophy of form—this book makes a central and significant point about the impact of Milton's work on the imaginations of artists in various disciplines throughout the following centuries. Indeed, for many of the works of art analyzed in the present volume, Milton must be considered their "onlie begetter.". (shrink)
This treatise deals with Philo's allegory of Genesis 9:20 (And Noah began to be a husbandman). The first part of the treatise deals with Noah as a someone who "cultivates" the soul, and the second part with Noah as one who has set out on the path towards spiritual and ethical perfection.
In forming the canon, the church acknowledged and established the Bible as the measure or standard of inspiration in the church, not as the totality of it. What concurs with canon is of like inspiration ; what does not is not of God.
Major codes adopted by newspapers in recent years show marked similarities to the statements of purpose found in the first (and only) issue of Benjamin Harris? Public Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, published in Boston in 1690. This essay compares the front page statement by Harris with seven other statements about the role or responsibility of the press: The Associated Press Managing Editors Association ?Code of Ethics for Newspapers and their Staffs''; the 1947 report of the Commission on Freedom of (...) the Press; the American Society of Newspaper Editors 1923 Canons of Journalism and 1975 Statement of Principles; the Society of Professional Journalists, Sigma Delta Chi Code of Ethics; a memorandum to the staff of The New York Times by A.M. Rosenthal when he became managing editor in 1969; and an article by former Knight?Ridder executive Don Carter. Recurring themes include an emphasis on gathering and reporting news with accuracy, objectivity, truthfulness, and completeness. In addition, Harris led the way with his promises to correct errors when they occur and to allay false rumors and replace them with substantive information. Harris? stated goals, according to this essay, would sit quite comfortably on many American newspaper editorial pages today. (shrink)
The United Nations' designation of 1979 as the International Year of the Child marked the first global effort undertaken to heighten awareness of the special needs of children. Activities initiated during this special year were designed to promote purposive and collaborative actions for the benefit of children throughout the world. Michigan State University's celebration of the International Year of the Child was held from Septem ber 1979 through June 1980. A variety of activities focused attention on the multiplicity of factors (...) affecting the welfare of today's children as well as the children of the future. Many people involved with the university were concerned that benefits to children continue beyond the official time allocated to the celebration. The series Child Nurturance is one response to this concern. The first five volumes of Child Nurturance reflect directly the activities held on the Michigan State University campus and consist of original contributions from guest speakers and invited contributors. Subsequent biennial volumes will present original contributions from individuals representing such fields as anthropology, biology, education, human ecology, psychology, philosophy, sociology, and medicine. We hope the material presented in these volumes will promote greater understanding of children and encourage interdisciplinary inquiry into the individual, family, societal and cultural variables which influence their welfare and development. We would. like to express both our thanks and our admiration for who not only typed the camera-ready copy for each of Margaret Burritt the volumes, but also served as general manager of the entire project. (shrink)