Messenger, Dally The renowned and popular philosopher, Alain de Botton, TV-and-radio crawled Australia in February 2012 promoting his new book, Religion for Atheists: a non-believers guide to the uses of religion. It was a thesis which many, including me, welcomed as sensible and constructive. Basically his message was that the human wisdom and artistry which has evolved over thousands of years though the various religious movements is part of everyone's heritage, and should be culturally assimilated and used by us, (...) to affect human behaviour for the better. (shrink)
The scholastic doctrine of transcendentals is inherited from Arabic philosophy to a certain extent. This dependance is clearly illustrated in the construction of the problematic of the transcendental one, which is identical with being, and of the numerical one, which is not. The scholastic discussion as a whole reproduces the major themes of Avicenna's position, then of Averroes' criticism of Avicenna. This article attempts to reconstruct the complex of questions, topics, and arguments which constitute this problematic by tracing its evolution (...) through the analysis of anonymous sophismata and of texts by Nicholas of Paris, Roger Bacon, Albert the Great, and James of Viterbo. Two stages are distinguished: the first is centered on the distinction between the transcendental and numerical one; the second, essentially German, is centered on the subordination of the Aristotelian to the Platonic concept of the transcendental one. Along the way, it is shown that, with the exception of the German philosophers, the understanding of Avicenna's position is constantly filtered through Averroes' interpretation. La doctrine scolastique des transcendantaux est dans une mesure certaine hérìtée de la philosophie arabe. La construction de la problématique de l'un transcendantal, convertible avec l'être, et de l'un numérique, non convertible, illustre bien cette dépendance: toute la discussion scolastique reproduit les grandes lignes de la position d'Avicenne, puis la critique d'Avicenne par Averroès. L'article essaie de reconstituer l'ensemble des questions, lieux et arguments qui constituent cette problématique en en suivant l'évolution grâce à l'analyse de sophismata anonymes et de textes de Nicolas de Paris, de Roger Bacon, d'Albert le Grand et de Jacques de Viterbe. Deux stades sont distingués: le premier centré sur la distinction entre un transcendantal et un numérique; le second, essentiellement allemand, sur la subordination de l'un transcendantal à 1'Un transcendant. Chemin faisant, on montre que, à l'exception des philosophes allemands, la compréhension de la “position d'Avicenne” reste filtrée par l'interprétation d'Averroès. (shrink)
The German philosophical culture of the Middle Ages is inextricable linked to the thought of Albert the Great. This volume brings together 14 papers, which deal with Albert's influence from the points of view of mysticism, philosophy, and the history of universities.
"To think with Nietzsche against Nietzsche." Thus the editors describe the strategy adopted in this volume to soften the destructive effects of Nietzsche's "philosophy with a hammer" on French philosophy since the 1960s. Frustrated by the infinite inclusiveness of deconstructionism, the contributors to this volume seek to renew the Enlightenment quest for rationality. Though linked by no common dogma, these essays all argue that the "French Nietzsche" transmitted through the deconstructionists must be reexamined in light of the original context in (...) which Nietzsche worked. Each essay questions the viability of Nietzsche's thought in the modern world, variously critiquing his philosophy of history as obsessed with hierarchy, his views on religion and art as myopic and irrational, and his stance on science as hopelessly reactionary. Contending that we must abandon the Nietzsche propped up as patron saint by French deconstructionists in order to return to reason, these essays will stimulate debate not just among Nietzscheans but among all with a stake in modern French philosophy. Contributors are Alain Boyer, André Compte-Sponville, Vincent Descombes, Luc Ferry, Robert Legros, Philippe Raynaud, Alain Renault, and Pierre-André Taguieff. (shrink)
Studies in the behavioral ethics and moral psychology traditions have begun to reveal the important roles of self-related processes that underlie moral behavior. Unfortunately, this research has resulted in two distinct and opposing streams of findings that are usually referred to as moral consistency and moral compensation. Moral consistency research shows that a salient self-concept as a moral person promotes moral behavior. Conversely, moral compensation research reveals that a salient self-concept as an immoral person promotes moral behavior. This study’s aim (...) was to integrate these two literatures. We argued that compensation forms a reactive, “damage control” response in social situations, whereas consistency derives from a more proactive approach to reputation building and maintenance. Two experiments supported this prediction in showing that cognitive depletion (i.e., resulting in a reactive approach) results in moral compensation whereas consistency results when cognitive resources are available (i.e., resulting in a proactive approach). Experiment 2 revealed that these processes originate from reputational (rather than moral) considerations by showing that they emerge only under conditions of accountability. It can thus be concluded that reputational concerns are important for both moral compensation and moral consistency processes, and that which of these two prevails depends on the perspective that people take: a reactive or a proactive approach. (shrink)
In the present article, we argue that the constant pressure that leaders face may limit the willpower required to behave according to ethical norms and standards and may therefore lead to unethical behavior. Drawing upon the ego depletion and moral self-regulation literatures, we examined whether self-regulatory depletion that is contingent upon the moral identity of leaders may promote unethical leadership behavior. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study revealed that regulatory resource depletion promotes unethical leader behaviors among leaders who (...) are low in moral identity. No such effect was found among leaders with a high moral identity. This study extends our knowledge on why organizational leaders do not always conform to organizational goals. Specifically, we argue that the hectic and fragmented workdays of leaders may increase the likelihood that they violate ethical norms. This highlights the necessity to carefully schedule tasks that may have ethical implications. Similarly, organizations should be aware that overloading their managers with work may increase the likelihood of their leaders transgressing ethical norms. (shrink)
The idea of a Europe of its peoples, or a post-nation-state ‘regionalist Europe’, is largely applauded by radical democratic and post-colonial theorists who considered this development an antidote to nationalism. What is hardly heeded by liberal as well as left-wing intellectuals, however, is that several fascist and neo-fascist intellectuals during the inter-war and the post-war eras have also been attracted by the idea of a post-nation-state, ‘Europe des peoples’. By analyzing the complementary ideologies of two French intellectuals associated with fascism (...) and post-war neo-fascism – Pierre Drieu La Rochelle and Alain de Benoist – this article traces the attempts to shed new light onto some of the shortcomings embedded in the concept of the ‘Europe des peoples’. Building upon Drieu and de Benoist’s ideas on the future of Europe as a post-national exclusionist ‘Europe of the peoples’, this article sets an alert that a new type of ethnic exclusionism may be strengthened precisely with the end of old states nationalism. (shrink)