Our concern is the completeness problem for spi-logics, that is, sets of implications between strictly positive formulas built from propositional variables, conjunction and modal diamond operators. Originated in logic, algebra and computer science, spi-logics have two natural semantics: meet-semilattices with monotone operators providing Birkhoff-style calculi and first-order relational structures (aka Kripke frames) often used as the intended structures in applications. Here we lay foundations for a completeness theory that aims to answer the question whether the two semantics define the same (...) consequence relations for a given spi-logic. (shrink)
Our concern is the axiomatisation problem for modal and algebraic logics that correspond to various fragments of two-variable first-order logic with counting quantifiers. In particular, we consider modal products with Diff, the propositional unimodal logic of the difference operator. We show that the two-dimensional product logic $Diff \times Diff$ is non-finitely axiomatisable, but can be axiomatised by infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. We also show that its ‘square’ version (the modal counterpart of the substitution and equality free fragment of two-variable first-order (...) logic with counting to two) is non-finitely axiomatisable over $Diff \times Diff$ , but can be axiomatised by adding infinitely many Sahlqvist axioms. These are the first examples of products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable, but axiomatisable by explicit infinite sets of canonical axioms. (shrink)
We solve a major open problem concerning algorithmic properties of products of ‘transitive’ modal logics by showing that products and commutators of such standard logics as K4, S4, S4.1, K4.3, GL, or Grz are undecidable and do not have the finite model property. More generally, we prove that no Kripke complete extension of the commutator [K4,K4] with product frames of arbitrary finite or infinite depth (with respect to both accessibility relations) can be decidable. In particular, if.
We show the first examples of recursively enumerable (even decidable) two-dimensional products of finitely axiomatisable modal logics that are not finitely axiomatisable. In particular, we show that any axiomatisation of some bimodal logics that are determined by classes of product frames with linearly ordered first components must be infinite in two senses: It should contain infinitely many propositional variables, and formulas of arbitrarily large modal nesting-depth.
We show that—unlike products of ‘transitive’ modal logics which are usually undecidable—their ‘expanding domain’ relativisations can be decidable, though not in primitive recursive time. In particular, we prove the decidability and the finite expanding product model property of bimodal logics interpreted in two-dimensional structures where one component—call it the ‘flow of time’—is • a finite linear order or a finite transitive tree and the other is composed of structures like • transitive trees/partial orders/quasi-orders/linear orders or only finite such structures expanding (...) over time. The decidability proof is based on Kruskal’s tree theorem, and the proof of non-primitive recursiveness is by reduction of the reachability problem for lossy channel systems. The result is used to show that the dynamic topological logic interpreted in topological spaces with continuous functions is decidable if the number of function iterations is assumed to be finite. (shrink)
We prove that the two-variable fragment of first-order intuitionistic logic is undecidable, even without constants and equality. We also show that the two-variable fragment of a quantified modal logic L with expanding first-order domains is undecidable whenever there is a Kripke frame for L with a point having infinitely many successors (such are, in particular, the first-order extensions of practically all standard modal logics like K, K4, GL, S4, S5, K4.1, S4.2, GL.3, etc.). For many quantified modal logics, including those (...) in the standard nomenclature above, even the monadic two-variable fragments turn out to be undecidable. (shrink)
We solve a major open problem concerning algorithmic properties of products of ‘transitive’ modal logics by showing that products and commutators of such standard logics as K4, S4, S4.1, K4.3, GL, or Grz are undecidable and do not have the finite model property. More generally, we prove that no Kripke complete extension of the commutator [K4,K4] with product frames of arbitrary finite or infinite depth can be decidable. In particular, if.
Built on the foundations laid by Peirce, Schröder, and others in the 19th century, the modern development of relation algebras started with the work of Tarski and his colleagues [21, 22]. They showed that relation algebras can capture strong first-order theories like ZFC, and so their equational theory is undecidable. The less expressive class WA of weakly associative relation algebras was introduced by Maddux . Németi  showed that WA's have a decidable universal theory. There has been extensive research on (...) increasing the expressive power of WA by adding new operations [1, 4, 11, 13, 20]. Extensions of this kind usually also have decidable universal theories. Here we give an example – extending WA's with set-theoretic projection elements – where this is not the case. These “logical” connectives are set-theoretic counterparts of the axiomatic quasi-projections that have been investigated in the representation theory of relation algebras [22, 6, 19]. We prove that the quasi-equational theory of the extended class PWA is not recursively enumerable. By adding the difference operator D one can turn WA and PWA to discriminator classes where each universal formula is equivalent to some equation. Hence our result implies that the projections turn the decidable equational theory of “WA + D ” to non-recursively enumerable. (shrink)
The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, compositionality presupposes (...) that we are able to compare arbitrary meanings in term of information content. This is why our proposal relies on an ‘intrinsically’ type free algebraic semantic theory. The basic entities in our models are neither individuals, nor eventualities, nor their properties, but ‘pieces of evidence’ for believing in the ‘truth’ or ‘existence’ or ‘identity’ of any kind of phenomenon. Our formal language contains a single binary non-associative constructor used for creating structured complex terms representing arbitrary phenomena. We give a finite Hilbert-style axiomatisation and a decision algorithm for the entailment problem of the suggested system. (shrink)
There are two known general results on the finite model property of commutators [L0,L1]. If L is finitely axiomatizable by modal formulas having universal Horn first-order correspondents, then both [L,K] and [L,S5] are determined by classes of frames that admit filtration, and so they have the fmp. On the negative side, if both L0 and L1 are determined by transitive frames and have frames of arbitrarily large depth, then [L0,L1] does not have the fmp. In this paper we show that (...) commutators with a “weakly connected” component often lack the fmp. Our results imply that the above positive result does not generalize to universally axiomatizable component logics, and even commutators without “transitive” components such as [K3,K] can lack the fmp. We also generalize the above negative result to cases where one of the component logics has frames of depth one only, such as [S4.3,S5] and the decidable product logic S4.3×S5. We also show cases when already half of commutativity is enough to force infinite frames. (shrink)