La literatura sobre teoría de juegos usualmente se ocupa de dar formulaciones de la misma que son suficientes para considerar aplicaciones específicas o para demostrar la existencia de equilibrios. Este artículo está dedicado a proveer una reconstrucción lógica sistemática de la TJ que busca determinar su elemento teórico básico a través de la formulación de su ley fundamental. Después de definir los conceptos de estrategia, procede a mostrar de qué manera cualquier estrategia conductual determina un espacio de probabilidad sobre las (...) historias del juego, como prolegómeno para definir el concepto de juego y considerar el problema de su aplicabilidad empírica. /// The literature on game theory is usually concerned with providing formulations of the same that are enough to consider specific applications, or to prove the existence of equilibria. This paper is devoted to provide a systematic logical reconstruction of TJ whose aim is to determine its basic theory-element through the formulation of its fundamental law. After defining the concepts of strategy, it proceeds to show how any behavioral strategy determines a probability space over the histories of the game, as a prolegomenon to the definition of the concept of game and the treatment of the problem of its empirical applicability. (shrink)
Even though Patrick Suppes made important contributions to utility theory, his final views on economic choice are quite critical of the expected-utility theories of rational choice. The aim of the present paper is to expose in a unified way his final views on economic choice and freedom. These views are part of his conception of causality and rationality.
ABSTRACT: Even though Patrick Suppes has many important contributions in the logic, methodology, and philosophy of economics his work in this area is, surprisingly, not well known within the community of economic methodologists. The aim of the present paper is to contribute to ll this lacuna. After presenting his general views on philosophy of science, the paper discusses at length his important notion of model of data, in connection with his famous learning experiments. His views on fundamental measurement are also (...) discussed in connection with such experiments. The article contains a comprehensive bibliography of Suppes on the subject.RESUMEN: Aunque las contribuciones de Patrick Suppes en el ámbito de la lógica, la metodología y la losofía de la economía hayan sido importantes, los metodólogos de la economía apenas las conocen. El propósito de este artículo es cubrir este vacío. Presentaremos su concepción general de la losofía de la ciencia y analizaremos después con detalle su noción de modelos de datos, surgida de sus famosos experimentos sobre aprendizaje. Discutiremos también su concepción de la medición fundamental en relación con tales experimentos. El artículo incluye además una amplia bibliografía de los trabajos de Suppes sobre el tema. (shrink)
Economists have long grappled with the problem of how economic theories relate to empirical evidence: how can abstract mathematized theories be used to produce empirical claims? How are such theories applied to economic phenomena? What does it mean to "test" economic theories? This book introduces, explains, and develops a structural philosophy of economics which addresses these questions and provides a unifying philosophical/logical basis for a general methodology of economics. The book begins by introducing a rigorous view of the logical foundations (...) and structure of scientific theories based upon the work of Alfred Tarski, Patrick Suppes, Karl Marx, and others. Using and combining their methods, the book then goes on to reconstruct important economic theories - including utility theory, game theory, Marxian economics, Sraffian economic theory, and econometrics - proving all the main theorems and discussing the key claims and the empirical applicability of each theory. Through these discussions, this book presents, in a systematic fashion, a general philosophy of economics grounded in the structural view. Offering rigorous formulations of important economic theories, A Structuralist Theory of Economics will be invaluable to all readers interested in the logic, philosophy, and methodology of economics. It will also appeal particularly to those interested in economic theory. (shrink)
The aim of the present paper is to provide a logical reconstruction of the Marxian Theory of Value. This reconstruction is based upon the concept of abstract as opposed to that of homogeneous labor.labour is a social relation that holds in a market economy, whenever the profit rate is uniform; it consists in a comparison of the different labors through the exchange relationship. The author proved in a different place that there exists a mathematical representation of abstract labor which is (...) unique up to similarity transformations. The existence of this function -- which is none other than the value function -- is the basis of the present axiomatization, which includes detailed reconstructions of two of the most important models of the theory. (shrink)
After presenting a brief history of philosophy in Hispanic-America since the XVI century, we discuss whether the idea of province and empire is applicable to contemporary Hispanic-American philosophy, investigate the form these ideas adopt in this region, and inquire into the ways in which provincialism i s present in philosophical work. We conclude that there are three main groups that understand their peripheral position in different ways, with different views on the way in which they should insert into the mainstream (...) of Western philosophy. (shrink)
Adrian Vlot used a lot of information when he wrote his article. I do not intend this brief presentation to give additional information or remarks on the topic. My aim is to support his ideas. I am a mathematician, physicist and theologian. I interpret science as a human activity describing and understanding the phenomena of the created universe based on observation, explaining the relationships in the universe afterwards and, in addition, discovering further areas via human intellectual abilities. In my interpretation (...) technology is something through which man makes use of the experience, knowledge, discovered relationships and laws in practice to create new tools or new materials which facilitate further research. That is how science and technology are related. In historical chronology, technology preceded science but later science also achieved results preceding their application in practice. Among others, the chronological intertwining is represented by Faraday and Maxwell’s activities. (shrink)
Aunque las contribuciones de Patrick Suppes en el ámbito de la lógica, la metodología y la losofía de la economía (por no mencionar a la propia economía) hayan sido importantes, los metodólogos de la economía apenas las conocen. El propósito de este artículo es cubrir este vacío. Presentaremos su concepción general de la losofía de la ciencia y analizaremos después con detalle su noción de modelos de datos, surgida de sus famosos experimentos sobre aprendizaje. Discutiremos también su concepción de la (...) medición fundamental en relación con tales experimentos. El artículo incluye además una amplia bibliografía de los trabajos de Suppes sobre el tema. (shrink)
The aim of the dissertation is to show that the logical foundations of the Marxian Theory of Value are reasonably sound. The first chapter presents a concise history of MTV and formulates in a detailed way the problem of foundations in MTV. This is the problem of proving the existence of labor-values in a general economy in which joint products, alternative techniques, and heterogeneous labor are allowed. ;In the second chapter the problem is tackled through the demonstration that there is (...) a measurement of abstract labor in such general systems, where abstract labor is understood as a binary relation over the set of labor expenditures induced by a system of prices, in a commodity economy, that satisfies certain properties. It is also shown that whenever the rate of profit is uniform the price system satisfies such properties. ;Using the results of the second chapter, in the last chapter an axiomatization of MTV is provided and two of the most typical models of MTV are reconstructed in terms of abstract labor in a very detailed way. The first of these is the classical Leontief model and the second one is a more general model due to John K. Roemer. The conclusion of the dissertation is that the foundations of MTV are as sound as those of Neo-classical Economics. (shrink)
Written before the impressive collapse of the socialist system in Eastern Europe, this book offers a quite objective and serious systematic analysis of the Marxian labor theory of value, Marx's main scientific legacy. After reconstructing the 'prototype' of this theory - which is the theory as it was left by Marx himself in Capital - the author proceeds to a careful and detailed analysis of its foundational problems, taking into account Bohm-Bawerk's important criticisms. After introducing advanced contemporary formal tools, the (...) author proceeds to a thorough discussion of the dialectical method, just in order to tackle the foundational problems of the theory. He provides a formally precise and well motivated definition of abstract labor, and then proceeds to prove the existence of a measurement of abstract labor - i.e. the existence of numerical labor-values. Using this result, the author provides rigorous axiomatic foundations for the theory of value and then proves the existence of a Marxian competitive equilibrium, which is tantamount to the proof of the possibility of reproduction for a capitalist economy. The author finishes the book by showing in detail how the problems of the prototype are solved, by reconstructing the Leontief model of the labor theory of value on the new logical bases. Written in a very clear style, in the language of contemporary philosophy of science, the book is of interest to philosophers of science and economists, applied logicians and all those interested in the scientific legacy of Karl Marx. (shrink)
Herman Dooyeweerd ( 1985 ) argued that among the modalities making up the fabric of reality a specifically economic one is to be found. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the texture of such a modality and how it both differentiates and intertwines with others. For an updated brief, albeit cogent and analytically lucid presentation of the Law Framework ontology, see Clouser ( 2009 ). Dooyeweerd’s view entails that the proper object of economics is irreducible to that (...) of other disciplines, but a non-reductionist view of the object of economics presupposes that the nuclear meaning of that discipline has been clearly delimited: this is required in order to determine its nature and separate identity as a scientific discipline. By ‘the nuclear meaning of a discipline’ I understand a pre-theoretical delimitation of its field of research, such as that of the field of physics, characterized by the laws governing force and energy. Within one and the same field there may be many theories, theories competing to explain the same phenomena, or dealing with phenomena so different that it is nearly impossible to trace conceptual connections among them. This last situation calls for a unified-field theory. In the second section of this paper I will attempt to defend a rather commonly accepted definition of the field of economics that sees this discipline as a science of choice. In the third I will show how the analytical conception it involves can be naturally complemented with a classificatory one. According to a classificatory conception, the aggregated social-level phenomena, patterns and regularities economic theories usually deal with, are economic in that sense, even though they are not prima facie cases of individual behavior, or are unintended consequences of aggregated individual choices. In the fourth I will discuss the meaning of the most general, supra-arbitrary economic laws—the modal laws of economics. In the final section I will offer a non-reductionist view of economics that nevertheless takes into account its intertwining with other spheres. (shrink)
The aim of the present paper is to attack some of the conceptual problems that arise when the framework of mathematical learning theory is applied to the description of the behavior of the firm, in setting prices and production quotas, in a competitive market. The goal is to depict the process by which the firm fixes prices and production quotas as a stochastic learning process. A solution to such problems is proposed which is based on statistical-decision concepts. The conceptualization of (...) the behavior of the firm by means of concepts pertaining to mathematical learning theory gives rise to certain mathematical problems, which are formulated here in rather precise terms. (shrink)
Herman Dooyeweerd’s classical characterization of the meaning-kernel of the economic modality runs as follows:the sparing or frugal mode of administering scarce goods, implying an alternative choice of their destination with regard to thesatisfaction of different human needs.My first aim in this paper is to show that Dooyeweerd’s characterization of the meaning-kernel of the economic modality naturallyleads to neoclassical economic theory. In order to do this, I will provide an argument that, departing from Dooyeweerd’s definitionof the meaning-kernel of the economic modality, (...) concludes in a logical reconstruction of neoclassical economictheory . The fundamental law of this theory will turn out to be thus, naturally, a formulation of thefundamental modal law of economics. The second aim of the paper is epistemological since it discusses the methodological problem of the empirical claim of the theory. It is my hope that this discussion will clarify the limits of NET and provide a reply to the objections raised against it by Reformed scholars like Goudzwaard. (shrink)
El 30 de julio de 1916 se eligieron los representantes para la Convención encargada de elaborar la segunda constitución uruguaya que fijó las reglas de la naciente democracia. En esta elección se utilizaron por primera vez el voto secreto y una versión inédita de representación proporcional. Para explicar por qué se usaron esas reglas y no otras, se utiliza la teoría de los órdenes sociales de Emanuel Adler. Las nuevas reglas recogen en el plano institucional la evolución cognitiva de caudillos (...) y doctores, los protagonistas centrales de la comunidad de práctica democrática uruguaya. Los caudillos fueron aprendiendo en la práctica, por ensayo y error, a competir por el poder pero también a pactar. Los doctores, a partir de esas prácticas pero también de las teorías que circulaban en la época, aportaron el conocimiento reflexivo que recogieron las nuevas normas. De todos modos, no es posible comprender la trayectoria doméstica sin tomar en cuenta la influencia de procesos exógenos. La Convención de Buenos Aires y la Ley Sáenz-Peña tuvieron un impacto profundo en Uruguay. (shrink)
La finalidad de este artículo es proveer una reconstrucción lógica del elemento teórico básico de la teoría del valor trabajo desde la perspectiva de la metateoría estructuralista. Las metas son esbozar con alguna precisión la ley fundamental de la teoría �la ley del valor� así como la aserción empírica.
Herman Dooyeweerd’s classical characterization of the meaning-kernel of the economic modality runs as follows: the sparing or frugal mode of administering scarce goods, implying an alternative choice of their destination with regard to the satisfaction of different human needs. My first aim in this paper is to show that Dooyeweerd’s characterization of the meaning-kernel of the economic modality naturally leads to neoclassical economic theory. In order to do this, I will provide an argument that, departing from Dooyeweerd’s definition of the (...) meaning-kernel of the economic modality, concludes in a logical reconstruction of (the static case of) neoclassical economic theory (from now on denoted as NET). The fundamental law of this theory will turn out to be thus, naturally, a formulation of the fundamental modal law of economics. The second aim of the paper is epistemological since it discusses the methodological problem of the empirical claim of the theory. It is my hope that this discussion will clarify the limits of NET and provide a reply to the objections raised against it by Reformed scholars like Goudzwaard (1980). (shrink)
The aim of the present paper is to provide a logical reconstruction of the Marxian Theory of Value. This reconstruction is based upon the concept of abstract as opposed to that of homogeneous labor. Abstract labour is a social relation that holds in a market economy, (at least) whenever the profit rate is uniform; it consists in a comparison of the different labors through the exchange relationship. The author proved in a different place (see García de la Sienra, 1987) (...) that there exists a mathematical representation of abstract labor which is unique up to similarity transformations. The existence of this function — which is none other than the value function — is the basis of the present axiomatization, which includes detailed reconstructions of two of the most important models of the theory. (shrink)
A 10 años de su fallecimiento, Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez (1915-2011), sigue siendo el mismo ejemplo de pensador creativo y crítico que fue en vida. Es momento oportuno para cristalizar un homenaje que, como él mismo nos enseñara, más que meras palabras de elogio, entrañe un acercamiento reflexivo, valorativo y desarrollador a su legado, una contribución colectiva y diversa que muestre la vigencia de su pensamiento. El presente libro comenzó a germinar en junio de 2016 en un coloquio dedicado al (...) maestro. Es el segundo producto de la serie Homenaje de la Colección La Fuente. Incluye un extenso prólogo, 21 textos que hablan sobre su filosofía de la praxis, su estética y su vida, así como dos entrevistas, una realizada a él en Cuba y otra concedida, a propósito de este libro, por su hija, quien gentilmente nos facilitara, además, las fotografías del maestro que se insertan al final del libro. (shrink)
En forma de síntesis reflexiva sobre la vida y la obra de Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez, el trabajo responde in inicialmente a una solicitud de la revista Casa de las Américas. Esta revista-institución había pedido, en justo homenaje a este genuino marxista, un comentario a dos volúmenes que celebraban desde México, con inteligente selección, abierta a la controversia, su 80 aniversario (1995). Se trataba de los libros Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez: los trabajos y los días y En torno a la (...) obra de Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez, editados por Federico Álvarez y Gabriel Vargas Lozano, respectivamente. Publicado originalmente con el título “La empecinada herejía de Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez” en la mencionada revista (núm. 203, La Habana,1996, pp.142-147), el texto fue revisado y actualizado para la presente edición. (shrink)
This paper shows that in the philosophy of Sánchez Vázquez the basis for creative praxis is not innovation but the activity of practical consciousness, to which that Marxist philosopher describes as dialectical unity of the subjective and the objective. Furthermore, the paper argues that, in the sense of such unity and mutatis mutandi, creation has a place in non-practical human activity.
Buscando un acercamiento más íntimo a Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez como ser humano, integrante de una familia y educador, se realiza esta entrevista a María Aurora Sánchez Rebolledo, su hija. La misma fue realizada por José Ramón Fabelo Corzo y Rodrigo Walls Calatayud, en representación del equipo de Colección La Fuente, y tuvo lugar en noviembre de 2020, durante la época de confinamiento mundial debido a la pandemia por la COVID-19. La comunicación con Aurora se efectuó por medio de mensajes (...) electrónicos, a través de medios digitales. (shrink)
Resumen En este artículo expongo los aspectos principales del debate suscitado por la aparición del libro de Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez Ciencia y revolución: el marxismo de Althusser. Presentaré primero la crítica del filósofo hispanomexicano a la obra de Louis Althusser y después explicaré la contracrítica del también filósofo Enrique González Rojo que aparece en su libro Epistemología y socialismo. Por último, ofrezco una interpretación de ambos momentos que las concibe como partes de un capítulo significativo de la historia de (...) la filosofía en México.In this article I present the main points of a debate raised by the book Science and Revolution: The Marxism of Althusser by Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez. I begin by addressing the criticism of the Spanish-Mexican philosopher towards the work of Louis Althusser and then I explain the counter-criticism to this approach set forth by -the also philosopher- Enrique González Rojo in his book Epistemology and Socialism. Finally, I offer an interpretation in which both moments in the debate are conceived as a significant chapter in the history of philosophy in Mexico. (shrink)
Determined to fight alone, stripped from the security that could be offered by community, human beings of our times have openly embraced their individuality. With such a purpose, consciously or unconsciously, they have decided to decimate the institutions and to break with the burden imposed by rules, laws and agreements, which they consider are oppressive and limit their personal development. Thus, the article offers a philosophical review of the concept of community and examines the necessity of its reconfiguration as social (...) linking force. This arises as an answer to possible risks associated with the coming of a new individual that adopts her selfhood as the only truth, which leads to not acknowledging otherness and plurality, and to individualism as the only possible way of being. (shrink)