Results for 'Adam J. Shriver'

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  1. The Asymmetrical Contributions of Pleasure and Pain to Animal Welfare.Adam J. Shriver - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):152-162.
    Recent results from the neurosciences demonstrate that pleasure and pain are not two symmetrical poles of a single scale of experience but in fact two different types of experiences altogether, with dramatically different contributions to well-being. These differences between pleasure and pain and the general finding that “the bad is stronger than the good” have important implications for our treatment of nonhuman animals. In particular, whereas animal experimentation that causes suffering might be justified if it leads to the prevention of (...)
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  2.  11
    Environmental Neuroethics: Bridging Environmental Ethics and Mental Health.Adam J. Shriver, Laura Y. Cabrera & Judy Illes - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (9):26-27.
  3. The Hard Problem of AI Rights.Adam J. Andreotta - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):19-32.
    In the past few years, the subject of AI rights—the thesis that AIs, robots, and other artefacts (hereafter, simply ‘AIs’) ought to be included in the sphere of moral concern—has started to receive serious attention from scholars. In this paper, I argue that the AI rights research program is beset by an epistemic problem that threatens to impede its progress—namely, a lack of a solution to the ‘Hard Problem’ of consciousness: the problem of explaining why certain brain states give rise (...)
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  4. Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics: An Empirical Investigation of the Concept of Lying.Adam J. Arico & Don Fallis - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):790 - 816.
    There are many philosophical questions surrounding the notion of lying. Is it ever morally acceptable to lie? Can we acquire knowledge from people who might be lying to us? More fundamental, however, is the question of what, exactly, constitutes the concept of lying. According to one traditional definition, lying requires intending to deceive (Augustine. (1952). Lying (M. Muldowney, Trans.). In R. Deferrari (Ed.), Treatises on various subjects (pp. 53?120). New York, NY: Catholic University of America). More recently, Thomas Carson (2006. (...)
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  5. Uncoddling the American Mind: The Educational Ask of Trigger Warnings.Adam J. Greteman - 2019 - Philosophy of Education 75:117-129.
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  6.  66
    Confabulation Does Not Undermine Introspection for Propositional Attitudes.Adam J. Andreotta - 2019 - Synthese 198 (5):4851-4872.
    According to some, such as Carruthers (2009, 2010, 2011, 2015), the confabulation data (experimental data showing subjects making false psychological self-ascriptions) undermine the view that we can know our propositional attitudes by introspection. He believes that these data favour his interpretive sensory-access (ISA) theory—the view that self-knowledge of our propositional attitudes always involves self-interpretation of our sensations, behaviour, or situational cues. This paper will review some of the confabulation data and conclude that the presence and pattern of these data do (...)
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  7.  56
    The Appeal to Expert Opinion: Quantitative Support for a Bayesian Network Approach.Adam J. L. Harris, Ulrike Hahn, Jens K. Madsen & Anne S. Hsu - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1496-1533.
    The appeal to expert opinion is an argument form that uses the verdict of an expert to support a position or hypothesis. A previous scheme-based treatment of the argument form is formalized within a Bayesian network that is able to capture the critical aspects of the argument form, including the central considerations of the expert's expertise and trustworthiness. We propose this as an appropriate normative framework for the argument form, enabling the development and testing of quantitative predictions as to how (...)
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  8.  71
    Because Hitler Did It! Quantitative Tests of Bayesian Argumentation Using Ad Hominem.Adam J. L. Harris, Anne S. Hsu & Jens K. Madsen - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (3):311 - 343.
    Bayesian probability has recently been proposed as a normative theory of argumentation. In this article, we provide a Bayesian formalisation of the ad Hitlerum argument, as a special case of the ad hominem argument. Across three experiments, we demonstrate that people's evaluation of the argument is sensitive to probabilistic factors deemed relevant on a Bayesian formalisation. Moreover, we provide the first parameter-free quantitative evidence in favour of the Bayesian approach to argumentation. Quantitative Bayesian prescriptions were derived from participants' stated subjective (...)
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  9. Relativism.Maria Baghramian & Adam J. Carter - 2020 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Relativism has been, in its various guises, both one of the most popular and most reviled philosophical doctrines of our time. Defenders see it as a harbinger of tolerance and the only ethical and epistemic stance worthy of the open-minded and tolerant. Detractors dismiss it for its alleged incoherence and uncritical intellectual permissiveness. Debates about relativism permeate the whole spectrum of philosophical sub-disciplines. From ethics to epistemology, science to religion, political theory to ontology, theories of meaning and even logic, philosophy (...)
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  10.  5
    Ethics and Education.J. W. L. Adams - 1968 - Philosophical Quarterly 18 (71):186-187.
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  11.  74
    Breaking Out of Moral Typecasting.Adam J. Arico - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):425-438.
    In their recent paper, Kurt Gray and Daniel Wegner offer a model of moral cognition, the “Moral Typecasting” thesis, in which they claim that perceptions of moral agency are inversely related to perceptions of moral patiency. Once we see someone as a moral agent, they claim, we cannot see them as a moral patient (and vice versa). In this paper, I want both to challenge the conception of morality on which the typecasting thesis is fundamentally based and to raise some (...)
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  12. Unintentional Punishment.Adam J. Kolber - 2012 - Legal Theory 18 (1):1-29.
    Criminal law theorists overwhelmingly agree that for some conduct to constitute punishment, it must be imposed intentionally. Some retributivists have argued that because punishment consists only of intentional inflictions, theories of punishment can ignore the merely foreseen hardships of prison, such as the mental and emotional distress inmates experience. Though such distress is foreseen, it is not intended, and so it is technically not punishment. In this essay, I explain why theories of punishment must pay close attention to the unintentional (...)
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  13.  23
    James is Polite and Punctual (and Useless): A Bayesian Formalisation of Faint Praise.Adam J. L. Harris, Adam Corner & Ulrike Hahn - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (3-4):414-429.
  14.  12
    Unrealistic Optimism About Future Life Events: A Cautionary Note.Adam J. L. Harris & Ulrike Hahn - 2011 - Psychological Review 118 (1):135-154.
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  15.  17
    Economic Precarity, Modern Liberal Arts and Creating a Resilient Graduate.Adam J. Smith - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (11):1037-1044.
    From the perspective of a recent graduate, this article offers a critique of non-STEM higher education in England as unfit for purpose. Whilst universities blindly focus on employability, transferable skills and narrow bands of subject knowledge, the economic world around them has collapsed into absurdity. The graduate today is now faced with economic, social and cultural precarity which is unreflected in the rigid structures and narrow focus of their degree. This article seeks a radical return to the ancient principles of (...)
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  16. ADAMS, J. - The Evolution of Educational Theory. [REVIEW]J. Edgar - 1913 - Mind 22:116.
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  17.  22
    Estimating the Probability of Negative Events.Adam J. L. Harris, Adam Corner & Ulrike Hahn - 2009 - Cognition 110 (1):51-64.
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  18.  90
    Laboratory Studies of Behavior Without Awareness.J. K. Adams - 1957 - Psychological Bulletin 54:383-405.
  19.  25
    Anxiety, Anticipation and Contextual Information: A Test of Attentional Control Theory.Adam J. Cocks, Robin C. Jackson, Daniel T. Bishop & A. Mark Williams - 2016 - Cognition and Emotion 30 (6).
  20.  27
    AI, Big Data, and the Future of Consent.Adam J. Andreotta, Nin Kirkham & Marco Rizzi - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    In this paper, we discuss several problems with current Big data practices which, we claim, seriously erode the role of informed consent as it pertains to the use of personal information. To illustrate these problems, we consider how the notion of informed consent has been understood and operationalised in the ethical regulation of biomedical research and compare this with current Big data practices. We do so by first discussing three types of problems that can impede informed consent with respect to (...)
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  21.  29
    The Limited Right to Alter Memory.Adam J. Kolber - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (10):658-659.
    We like to think we own our memories: if technology someday enables us to alter our memories, we should have certain rights to do so. But our freedom of memory has limits. Some memories are simply too valuable to society to allow individuals the unfettered right to change them. Suppose a patient regains consciousness in the middle of surgery. While traumatized by the experience and incapable of speaking, he coincidentally overhears two surgeons make plans to set fire to the hospital. (...)
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  22. Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Non-Unary Case.Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):250-276.
    Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for first-order sentences. Given first-order sentences φ and θ, we consider the structures with domain {1,..., N} that satisfy θ, and compute the fraction of them in which φ is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 0-1 laws that considers the limiting probability of first-order sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional (...)
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  23. Naming and Identity in Epistemic Logic Part II: A First-Order Logic for Naming.Adam J. Grove - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence 74 (2):311-350.
  24. The Color-Word Stroop Task Does Not Differentiate Cognitive Inhibition Ability Among Esports Gamers of Varying Expertise.Adam J. Toth, Magdalena Kowal & Mark J. Campbell - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  25.  12
    More than Just a Passing Cognitive Show: a Defence of Agentialism About Self-knowledge.Adam J. Andreotta - forthcoming - Acta Analytica:1-21.
    This paper contributes to a debate that has arisen in the recent self-knowledge literature between agentialists and empiricists. According to agentialists, in order for one to know what one believes, desires, and intends, rational agency needs to be exercised in centrally significant cases. Empiricists disagree: while they acknowledge the importance of rationality in general, they maintain that when it comes to self-knowledge, empirical justification, or warrant, is always sufficient.In what follows, I defend agentialism. I argue that if we could only (...)
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  26.  1
    Metacognitive Judgements of Change Detection Predict Change Blindness.Adam J. Barnas & Emily J. Ward - 2022 - Cognition 227:105208.
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  27.  68
    The Illusion of Control: A Bayesian Perspective.Adam J. L. Harris & Magda Osman - 2012 - Synthese 189 (S1):29-38.
    In the absence of an objective contingency, psychological studies have shown that people nevertheless attribute outcomes to their own actions. Thus, by wrongly inferring control in chance situations people appear to hold false beliefs concerning their agency, and are said to succumb to an illusion of control (IoC). In the current article, we challenge traditional conceptualizations of the illusion by examining the thesis that the IoC reflects rational and adaptive decision making. Firstly, we propose that the IoC is a by-product (...)
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  28. Argument Content and Argument Source: An Exploration.Ulrike Hahn, Adam J. L. Harris & Adam Corner - 2009 - Informal Logic 29 (4):337-367.
    Argumentation is pervasive in everyday life. Understanding what makes a strong argument is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. One factor that seems intuitively important to the strength of an argument is the reliability of the source providing it. Whilst traditional approaches to argument evaluation are silent on this issue, the Bayesian approach to argumentation (Hahn & Oaksford, 2007) is able to capture important aspects of source reliability. In particular, the Bayesian approach predicts that argument content and source reliability (...)
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  29.  16
    Expertise and Decision-Making in American Football.Adam J. Woods, Alexander Kranjec, Matt Lehet & Anjan Chatterjee - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  30. Queer Replication.Adam J. Greteman - 2017 - Philosophy of Education 73:245-258.
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  31.  18
    Shamanic Journeying Imagery, Constructivism and the Affect Bridge Technique.Adam J. Rock & Peter B. Baynes - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (2):50-71.
  32.  26
    Extending the Transparency Method Beyond Belief: A Solution to the Generality Problem.Adam J. Andreotta - 2020 - Acta Analytica 36 (2):191-212.
    According to the Transparency Method, one can know whether one believes that P by attending to a question about the world—namely, ‘Is P true?’ On this view, one can know, for instance, whether one believes that Socrates was a Greek philosopher by attending to the question ‘Was Socrates a Greek philosopher?’ While many think that TM can account for the self-knowledge we can have of such a belief—and belief in general—fewer think that TM can be generalised to account for the (...)
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  33.  11
    Understanding the Coherence of the Severity Effect and Optimism Phenomena: Lessons From Attention.Adam J. L. Harris - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 50:30-44.
  34. Aspects of the Language of Latin Poetry.J. N. Adams & R. G. Mayer - unknown - Proceedings of the British Academy 93.
    International array of contributors, bringing together both traditional and more recent approaches to provide valuable insights into the poets’ use of language.Covers authors from Lucilius to Juvenal.Of the peoples of ancient Italy, only the Romans committed newly composed poems to writing, and for 250 years Latin-speakers developed an impressive verse literature.The language had traditional resources of high style, e.g., alliteration, lexical and morphological archaism or grecism, and of course metaphor and word order; and there were also less obvious resources in (...)
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  35.  10
    Experimental Study of Ostensibly Shamanic Journeying Imagery in Naïve Participants I: Antecedents.Adam J. Rock, Peter B. Baynes & Paul J. Casey - 2005 - Anthropology of Consciousness 16 (2):72-92.
  36.  61
    Public Reception of Climate Science: Coherence, Reliability, and Independence.Ulrike Hahn, Adam J. L. Harris & Adam Corner - 2016 - Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (1):180-195.
    Possible measures to mitigate climate change require global collective actions whose impacts will be felt by many, if not all. Implementing such actions requires successful communication of the reasons for them, and hence the underlying climate science, to a degree that far exceeds typical scientific issues which do not require large-scale societal response. Empirical studies have identified factors, such as the perceived level of consensus in scientific opinion and the perceived reliability of scientists, that can limit people's trust in science (...)
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  37.  36
    On the Circumstances of Justice.Adam J. Tebble - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory:147488511666419.
    An epistemic account of the circumstances of justice allows one to make three important claims about the Humean and Rawlsian ‘standard account’ of those circumstances. First, and contrary to Hume,...
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  38.  24
    Conventions of Naming in Cicero.J. N. Adams - 1978 - Classical Quarterly 28 (01):145-.
    The degrees of formality into which speech can be graded are in no sphere more obvious than in expressions of address and third-person reference. Methods of naming vary according to many factors: the formality of the circumstances in which naming takes place, the nature of the subject under discussion, and the ages, sex, and relative status of the speaker and addressee. Conventions of naming sometimes reflect the rigidity or otherwise of social divisions. In some societies or circles address between superior (...)
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  39.  6
    Phenomenological Analysis of Experimentally Induced Visual Mental Imagery Associated with Shamanic Journeying to the Lower World.Adam J. Rock - 2006 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 25 (1):45-55.
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  40. The Myth and the Meaning of Science as a Vocation.Adam J. Liska - 2005 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 28 (2):149-164.
    Many natural scientists of the past and the present have imagined that they pursued their activity according to its own inherent rules in a realm distinctly separate from the business world, or at least in a realm where business tended to interfere with science from time to time, but was not ultimately an essential component, ‘because one thought that in science one possessed and loved something unselfish, harmless, self-sufficient, and truly innocent, in which man’s evil impulses had no part whatever’, (...)
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  41. Before the Text: Ricoeur and the “Theological Turn”.Adam J. Graves - 2013 - Studia Phaenomenologica 13:359-385.
    This paper begins by arguing that Jean-Luc Marion’s desire to maintain the philosophical rigor of his analysis of revelation has led him to mischaracterizerevelation as a purely formal phenomenon devoid of any determinate content. The majority of the paper is devoted to showing that the approach to revelation off ered by Paul Ricœur—whose treatment of the phenomenon assumes all of the risks of a thinking exposed to its own historicity—represents an important and all-too-often ignored counterpoint to the prevailing methodological orientation (...)
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  42.  19
    The Problems with the Future: Educational Futurism and the Figural Child.Adam J. Greteman & Steven K. Wojcikiewicz - 2014 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 48 (4):559-573.
    This article contributes to work on temporality in education. Challenging the future-oriented focus in contemporary education, the authors question how ideas and assumptions regarding the future—centred on the Child—can set narrow boundaries around children in schools. In carrying out this task, we employ the work of Lee Edelman and John Dewey to examine the educational ramifications of the focus on the future, which we call ‘educational futurism’. The argument seeks specifically to explore how educational futurism imposes limits on educational discourse (...)
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  43. The Phenomenology of Revelation in Heidegger, Marion, and Ricoeur.Adam J. Graves - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    Adam Graves presents a new framework for understanding the importance of the concept of revelation in the development of phenomenology while also charting a path towards a more fruitful understanding of the relationship between reason and revelation, one that is rooted in a deeper appreciation of the complexities of our linguistic inheritance.
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  44.  8
    Pädagogischer Humanismus.J. W. L. Adams - 1958 - Philosophical Quarterly 8 (30):78-79.
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  45. Language Fragmentation in Recent Science-Fiction Novels.Adam J. Frisch - 1983 - In Robert E. Myers (ed.), The Intersection of Science Fiction and Philosophy: Critical Studies. Greenwood Press. pp. 147--58.
     
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  46.  15
    Leonie V. Hicks, Religious Life in Normandy, 1050–1300: Space, Gender and Social Pressure.(Studies in the History of Medieval Religion, 33.) Woodbridge, Eng., and Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer, 2007. Pp. X, 240; 3 Maps.Adam J. Davis - 2009 - Speculum 84 (2):449-450.
  47.  87
    The Enlightenment’s Concept of the Individual and its Contemporary Criticism.Adam J. Chmielewski - 2007 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):41-59.
    Communitarian social philosophy was born in opposition to some tenets of liberalism. Liberal individualism has been among its most strongly contested claims. In their criticisms, the communitarians point to the Enlightenment’s sources of the individualist vision of society and morality. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, even if the communitarian line of argument has been justified in more than one way, it is at the same time important to remember that the greatest figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, (...)
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  48.  2
    From Statistical Knowledge Bases to Degrees of Belief.Fahiem Bacchus, Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Artificial Intelligence 87 (1-2):75-143.
  49. Property and Practical Reason.Adam J. MacLeod - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    Property and Practical Reason makes a moral argument for common law property institutions and norms, and challenges the prevailing dichotomy between individual rights and state interests and its assumption that individual preferences and the good of communities must be in conflict. One can understand competing intuitions about private property rights by considering how private property enables owners and their collaborators to exercise practical reason consistent with the requirements of reason, and thereby to become practically reasonable agents of deliberation and choice (...)
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  50.  23
    Reinders, Hans S., The Future of the Disabled in Liberal Society: An Ethical Analysis.Adam J. Hildebrand - 2003 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (4):862-864.
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