174 found
Order:
Disambiguations
Andrew Fisher [44]Alec Fisher [34]Anthony Fisher [27]A. R. J. Fisher [21]
Alden L. Fisher [17]Anna V. Fisher [9]A. Fisher [6]Aiden L. Fisher [4]

Not all matches are shown. Search with initial or firstname to single out others.

See also
A. R. J. Fisher
University of Washington
Andrew Fisher
Nottingham University
Andrew Fisher
Goldsmiths College, University of London
2 more
  1.  70
    The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 1988 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univeristy Press.
    This new and expanded edition of The Logic of Real Arguments explains a distinctive method for analysing and evaluating arguments. It discusses many examples, ranging from newspaper articles to extracts from classic texts, and from easy passages to much more difficult ones. It shows students how to use the question 'What argument or evidence would justify me in believing P?', and also how to deal with suppositional arguments beginning with the phrase 'Suppose that X were the case.' It aims to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   68 citations  
  2. Abstracta and Abstraction in Trope Theory.A. R. J. Fisher - 2020 - Philosophical Papers 49 (1):41-67.
    Trope theory is a leading metaphysical theory in analytic ontology. One of its classic statements is found in the work of Donald C. Williams who argued that tropes qua abstract particulars are the very alphabet of being. The concept of an abstract particular has been repeatedly attacked in the literature. Opponents and proponents of trope theory alike have levelled their criticisms at the abstractness of tropes and the associated act of abstraction. In this paper I defend the concept of a (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  3. Instantiation in Trope Theory.A. R. J. Fisher - 2018 - American Philosophical Quarterly 55 (2):153-164.
    The concept of instantiation is realized differently across a variety of metaphysical theories. A certain realization of the concept in a given theory depends on what roles are specified and associated with the concept and its corresponding term as well as what entities are suited to fill those roles. In this paper, the classic realization of the concept of instantiation in a one-category ontology of abstract particulars or tropes is articulated in a novel way and defended against unaddressed objections.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  4. Priority Monism, Partiality, and Minimal Truthmakers.A. R. J. Fisher - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (2):477-491.
    Truthmaker monism is the view that the one and only truthmaker is the world. Despite its unpopularity, this view has recently received an admirable defence by Schaffer :307–324, 2010b). Its main defect, I argue, is that it omits partial truthmakers. If we omit partial truthmakers, we lose the intimate connection between a truth and its truthmaker. I further argue that the notion of a minimal truthmaker should be the key notion that plays the role of constraining ontology and that truthmaker (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  5. David Lewis, Donald C. Williams, and the History of Metaphysics in the Twentieth Century.A. R. J. Fisher - 2015 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (1):3--22.
    The revival of analytic metaphysics in the latter half of the twentieth century is typically understood as a consequence of the critiques of logical positivism, Quine’s naturalization of ontology, Kripke’s Naming and Necessity, clarifications of modal notions in logic, and the theoretical exploitation of possible worlds. However, this explanation overlooks the work of metaphysicians at the height of positivism and linguisticism that affected metaphysics of the late twentieth century. Donald C. Williams is one such philosopher. In this paper I explain (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  6. The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 1988 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This new and expanded edition of The Logic of Real Arguments explains a distinctive method for analysing and evaluating arguments. It discusses many examples, ranging from newspaper articles to extracts from classic texts, and from easy passages to much more difficult ones. It shows students how to use the question 'What argument or evidence would justify me in believing P?', and also how to deal with suppositional arguments beginning with the phrase 'Suppose that X were the case.' It aims to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  7.  2
    The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 1988 - Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    This new and expanded edition of The Logic of Real Arguments explains a distinctive method for analysing and evaluating arguments. It discusses many examples, ranging from newspaper articles to extracts from classic texts, and from easy passages to much more difficult ones. It shows students how to use the question 'What argument or evidence would justify me in believing P?', and also how to deal with suppositional arguments beginning with the phrase 'Suppose that X were the case.' It aims to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  8.  14
    Moral Fictionalism.Andrew Fisher - 2007 - Philosophical Quarterly 57 (226):145-148.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  9.  16
    Induction and Categorization in Young Children: A Similarity-Based Model.Vladimir M. Sloutsky & Anna V. Fisher - 2004 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 133 (2):166-188.
  10. Structural Universals.A. R. J. Fisher - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 13 (10):e12518.
    Structural universals are a kind of complex universal. They have been put to work in a variety of philosophical theories but are plagued with problems concerning their compositional nature. In this article, we will discuss the following questions. What are structural universals? Why believe in them? Can we give a consistent account of their compositional nature? What are the costs of doing so?
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  11. The Logic of Real Arguments.Alec Fisher - 1991 - Philosophy 66 (256):249-252.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  12. Truthmaking and Fundamentality.A. R. J. Fisher - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (4):448-473.
    I apply the notion of truthmaking to the topic of fundamentality by articulating a truthmaker theory of fundamentality according to which some truths are truth-grounded in certain entities while the ones that don't stand in a metaphysical-semantic relation to the truths that do. I motivate this view by critically discussing two problems with Ross Cameron's truthmaker theory of fundamentality. I then defend this view against Theodore Sider's objection that the truthmaking approach to fundamentality violates the purity constraint. Truthmaker theorists can (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  13.  8
    Critical Thinking an Introduction.Alec Fisher - 2001 - Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This text meets the requirements of the OCR AS specification for critical thinking. Alec Fisher shows students how they can develop a range of creative and critical thinking skills that are transferable to other subjects and contexts.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  14. On Lewis Against Magic: A Study of Method in Metaphysics.A. R. J. Fisher - 2018 - Synthese 195 (5):2335-2353.
    David Lewis objected to theories that posit necessary connections between distinct entities and to theories that involve a magical grasping of their primitives. In On the Plurality of Worlds, Lewis objected to nondescript ersatzism on these grounds. The literature contains several reconstructions of Lewis’ critique of nondescript ersatzism but none of these interpretations adequately address his main argument because they fail to see that Lewis’ critique is based on broader methodological considerations. I argue that a closer look at his methodology (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15.  29
    The Elements and Patterns of Being: Essays in Metaphysics.A. R. J. Fisher (ed.) - 2018 - Oxford University Press.
    Donald C. Williams was a key figure in the development of analytic philosophy. This book will be the definitive source for his highly original work, which did much to bring metaphysics back into fashion. It presents six classic papers and six previously unpublished, revealing his full philosophical vision for the first time.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  16.  51
    Remote Home Health Care Technologies: How to Ensure Privacy? Build It In: Privacy by Design.Ann Cavoukian, Angus Fisher, Scott Killen & David A. Hoffman - 2010 - Identity in the Information Society 3 (2):363-378.
    Current advances in connectivity, sensor technology, computing power and the development of complex algorithms for processing health-related data are paving the way for the delivery of innovative long-term health care services in the future. Such technological developments will, in particular, assist the elderly and infirm to live independently, at home, for much longer periods. The home is, in fact, becoming a locus for health care innovation that may in the future compete with the hospital. However, along with these advances come (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  17. The Pareto Argument for Inequality Revisited.A. R. J. Fisher & Edward F. McClennen - manuscript
    One of the more obscure arguments for Rawls’ difference principle dubbed ‘the Pareto argument for inequality’ has been criticised by G. A. Cohen (1995, 2008) as being inconsistent. In this paper, we examine and clarify the Pareto argument in detail and argue (1) that justification for the Pareto principles derives from rational selfinterest and thus the Pareto principles ought to be understood as conditions of individual rationality, (2) that the Pareto argument is not inconsistent, contra Cohen, and (3) that the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  18. Bennett on Parts Twice Over.A. R. J. Fisher - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (3):757-761.
    In this paper I outline the main features of Karen Bennett’s (Australasian Journal of Philosophy 1–21, 2011) non-classical mereology, and identify its methodological costs. I argue that Bennett’s mereology cannot account for the composition of structural universals because it cannot explain the mereological difference between isomeric universals, such as being butane and being isobutane. I consider responses, which come at costs to the view.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  19. Samuel Alexander's Theory of Categories.A. R. J. Fisher - 2015 - The Monist 98 (3):246-67.
    Samuel Alexander was one of the first realists of the twentieth century to defend a theory of categories. He thought that the categories are genuinely real and grounded in the intrinsic nature of Space-Time. I present his reduction of the categories in terms of Space-Time, articulate his account of categorial structure and completeness, and offer an interpretation of what he thought the nature of the categories really were. I then argue that his theory of categories has some advantages over competing (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  20. Metaethics: An Introduction.Andrew Fisher - 2011 - Acumen Publishing.
    Do moral facts exist? What would they be like if they did? What does it mean to say that a moral claim is true? What is the link between moral judgement and motivation? Can we know whether something is right and wrong? And is morality a fiction? " Metaethics : An Introduction" presents a very clear and engaging survey of the key concepts and positions in what has become one of the most exciting and influential fields of philosophy. Free from (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  21.  24
    Inductive Reasoning in the Context of Discovery: Analogy as an Experimental Stratagem in the History and Philosophy of Science.Amy A. Fisher - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 69:23-33.
  22.  78
    Pure Hypocrisy.Tony Lynch & A. Fisher - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (1):32-43.
    We argue that two main accounts of hypocrisy— the deception-based and the moral-non-seriousness-based account—fail to capture a specific kind of hypocrite who is morally serious and sincere "all the way down." The kind of hypocrisy exemplified by this hypocrite is irreducible to deception, self-deception or a lack of moral seriousness. We call this elusive and peculiar kind of hypocrisy, pure hypocrisy. We articulate the characteristics of pure hypocrisy and describe the moral psychology of two kinds of pure hypocrites.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  23. Arguing About Metaethics.Andrew Fisher & Simon Kirchin (eds.) - 2006 - Routledge.
    _Arguing about Metaethics_ collects together some of the most exciting contemporary work in metaethics in one handy volume. In it, many of the most influential philosophers in the field discuss key questions in metaethics: Do moral properties exist? If they do, how do they fit into the world as science conceives it? If they don’t exist, then how should we understand moral thought and language? What is the relation between moral judgement and motivation? As well as these questions, this volume (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  24.  72
    Musical Works as Structural Universals.A. R. J. Fisher - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-23.
    In the ontology of music the Aristotelian theory of musical works is the view that musical works are immanent universals. The Aristotelian theory is an attractive and serviceable hypothesis. However, it is overlooked as a genuine competitor to the more well-known theories of Musical Platonism and nominalism. Worse still, there is no detailed account in the literature of the nature of the universals that the Aristotelian identifies musical works with. In this paper, I argue that the best version of Musical (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25.  12
    Miki Kratsman and Shabtai Pinchevsky: The Anti-Mapping Project.Andrew Fisher - 2019 - Philosophy of Photography 10 (2):243-268.
    This article introduces an evolving project of visual mapping initiated by Israeli photographers Miki Kratsman and Shabtai Pinchevsky under the title of Anti-Mapping. Placing this critical project in the context of the Israel/Palestine conflict, the article examines how Kratsman and Pinchevsky develop complex, strategic and critically sophisticated approaches to visualizing the conditions that produce victims of violence and that place Palestinian villages under threat of destruction. The article explores their strategic, technical and critical approaches to the difficulties of representing particular (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26. How Clinical Trials Really Work Rethinking Research Ethics.Debra A. DeBruin, Joan Liaschenko & Anastasia Fisher - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2):121-139.
    Clinical trials are a central mechanism in the production of medical knowledge. They are the gold standard by which such knowledge is evaluated. They are widespread both in the United States and internationally; a National Institute of Health database reports over 106,000 active industry and government-sponsored trials (National Institutes of Health n.d.). They are an engine of the economy. The work of trials is complex; multiple people with diverse interests working across multiple settings simultaneously participate in them, and they are (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  27.  29
    The Ethical Perception of Undergraduate Students in Computer-Related Situations: An Analysis of the Effects of Culture, Gender and Prior Education.David Hay, Patricia McCourt Larres, Peter Oyelere & Andrew Fisher - 2001 - Teaching Business Ethics 5 (3):331-356.
  28. Donald C. Williams’s Defence of Real Metaphysics.A. R. J. Fisher - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (2):332-355.
    In the middle of last century metaphysics was widely criticized, ridiculed, and committed to the flames. During this period a handful of philosophers, against several anti-metaphysical trends, defended metaphysics and articulated novel metaphysical doctrines. Donald C. Williams was one of these philosophers. But while his contributions to metaphysics are well known his defence of metaphysics is not and yet it played a key part in the development and revival of metaphysics. In this paper I present his defence of metaphysics in (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. Samuel Alexander's Early Reactions to British Idealism.A. R. J. Fisher - 2017 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 23 (2):169-196.
    Samuel Alexander was a central figure of the new wave of realism that swept across the English-speaking world in the early twentieth century. His Space, Time, and Deity (1920a, 1920b) was taken to be the official statement of realism as a metaphysical system. But many historians of philosophy are quick to point out the idealist streak in Alexander’s thought. After all, as a student he was trained at Oxford in the late 1870s and early 1880s as British Idealism was beginning (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30.  64
    Community Food Security and Environmental Justice: Searching for a Common Discourse. [REVIEW]Robert Gottlieb & Andrew Fisher - 1996 - Agriculture and Human Values 13 (3):23-32.
    Community food security and environmental justice are parallel social movements interested in equity and justice and system-wide factors. They share a concern for issues of daily life and the need to establish community empowerment strategies. Both movements have also begun to reshape the discourse of sustainable agriculture, environmentalism and social welfare advocacy. However, community food security and environmental justice remain separate movements, indicating an incomplete process in reshaping agendas and discourse. Joining these movements through a common language of empowerment and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  31.  7
    When Stronger Knowledge Slows You Down: Semantic Relatedness Predicts Children's Co‐Activation of Related Items in a Visual Search Paradigm.Catarina Vales & Anna V. Fisher - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (6):e12746.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  32.  1
    Modern Epistemology a New Introduction.Nicholas Everitt & Alec Fisher - 1995 - Mcgraw-Hill Humanities, Social Sciences & World Languages.
    "A welcome and fresh addition to a market that has been dominated by rather traditional texts...instructors will enjoy teaching with it in their classrooms" -- Teaching Philosophy, March 1998. This text offers an exceptionally lucid account of how philosophers in the 20th century have challenged the ideas of "modern" philosophers on fundamental questions in epistemology. Numerous examples are used to help undergraduates grasp the material. Self-study questions and further readings are included. The book sets out the traditional view that knowledge (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  33.  8
    Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings.Alec Fisher - 1969 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (1):107-110.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  34.  51
    Theory-Neutral Arguments for “Effective Animal Advocacy”.Andrew Fisher - 2017 - Essays in Philosophy 18 (1):30-43.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35.  15
    Catholic Bioethics for a New Millennium.Anthony Fisher - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Abbreviations; Preface; Introduction; Part I. How are we to do Bioethics?: Section 1. Context: Challenges and Resources of a New Millennium: 1. Sex and life in post-modernity; 2. Catholic engagement with the culture of modernity; 3. Promising developments; 4. Conclusion; Section 2. Conscience: The Crisis of Authority: 5. The voice of conscience; 6. The voice of the magisterium; 7. Conscience in post-modernity; 8. Where to from here?; Section 3. Cooperation: Should we ever Collaborate with Wrongdoing?: 9. (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36.  15
    Semantic Similarity of Labels and Inductive Generalization: Taking a Second Look.Anna V. Fisher, Bryan J. Matlen & Karrie E. Godwin - 2011 - Cognition 118 (3):432-438.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  37.  6
    Testing Fairmindedness.Alec Fisher - 1991 - Informal Logic 13 (1).
  38.  28
    Suppositions in Argumentation.Alec Fisher - 1989 - Argumentation 3 (4):401-413.
    The atheist who begins to argue his case by saying, ‘Suppose there is an omniscient Being of the sort in which Christians believe ...’ is employing a very familiar move in argumentation. However, most books on argumentation theory ignore ‘suppositions’ completely. Searle omits suppositions entirely from his taxonomy of speech acts and this appears to lead to a similar omission in Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions by van Eemeren and Grootendorst.This paper argues that ‘suppositional argument’ is elegant, powerful and extremely (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  39. Causal and Logical Necessity in Malebranche’s Occasionalism.A. Fisher - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):523-548.
    The famous Cartesian Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715) espoused the occasionalist doctrine that ‘there is only one true cause because there is only one true God; that the nature or power of each thing is nothing but the will of God; that all natural causes are not true causes but only occasional causes’ (LO, 448, original italics). One of Malebranche’s well-known arguments for occasionalism, known as, the ‘no necessary connection’ argument (or, NNC ) stems from the principle that ‘a true cause… is (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  40.  16
    Processing of Perceptual Information is More Robust Than Processing of Conceptual Information in Preschool-Age Children: Evidence From Costs of Switching.Anna V. Fisher - 2011 - Cognition 119 (2):253-264.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  41.  61
    Of Art and Blasphemy.Anthony Fisher & Hayden Ramsay - 2000 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 3 (2):137-167.
    What does philosophy have to say about the argument that blasphemous art ought not to be publicly displayed? We examine four concepts of blasphemy: blasphemy as offence, attack on religion, attack on the sacred, attack on the blasphemer himself. We argue all four are needed to grasp this complex concept. We also argue for blasphemy as primarily a moral, not a religious concept. We then criticise four arguments for the public display of blasphemous art: it may be beautiful, provocative, devoutly (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  42.  29
    Wigmore's Chart Method.Jean Goodwin & Alec Fisher - 2000 - Informal Logic 20 (3).
    A generation before Beardsley, legal scholar John Henry Wigmore invented a scheme for representing arguments in a tree diagram, aimed to help advocates analyze the proof of facts at trial. In this essay, I describe Wigmore's "Chart Method" and trace its origin and influence. Wigmore, I argue, contributes to contemporary theory in two ways. His rhetorical approach to diagramming provides a novel perspective on problems about the theory of reasoning, premise adequacy, and dialectical obligations. Further, he advances a novel solution (...)
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  43. Good, God, and the Open-Question Argument.Andrew Fisher - 2005 - Religious Studies 41 (3):335-341.
    In Finite and Infinite Goods, Robert Adams defends his metaphysical account that good is resemblance to God via an ‘open-question’ intuition. It is, however, unclear what this intuition amounts to. I give two possible readings: one based on the semantic framework Adams employs, and another based on Adams's account of humankind's epistemological limitations. I argue that neither of these readings achieves Adams's advertised aim.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  44.  3
    Losing the Race? Philosophy of Race in U.K. Philosophy Departments.Vipin Chauhan, Thomas Crowley, Andrew Fisher, Helen McCabe & Helen Williams - forthcoming - Metaphilosophy.
  45. Examination of Merricks' Primitivism About Truth.A. R. J. Fisher - 2014 - Metaphysica 15 (2):281-98.
    Trenton Merricks argues for and defends a novel version of primitivism about truth : being true is a primitive monadic but non-intrinsic property. This examination consists of the following triad: a critical discussion of Merricks’ argument for his view, a rejection of his objection against Paul Horwich’s minimalist theory of truth, and a direct objection against his view on the grounds that it entails being true is a mysterious and suspicious property. The conclusion is that Merricks’ primitivism should be rejected.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  3
    Towards an Orderly Exit Regime in English Higher Education.Andrew Fisher - 2016 - Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education 20 (1):5-11.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  47. Robert H. Ennis (1996), Critical Thinking.Alec Fisher - 2000 - Argumentation 14 (1):48-51.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  97
    Beyond Barthes: Rethinking the Phenomenology of Photography.Andrew Fisher - unknown
  49.  7
    The Influence of Label Co-Occurrence and Semantic Similarity on Children’s Inductive Generalization.Bryan J. Matlen, Anna V. Fisher & Karrie E. Godwin - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50. Personal Identity: Complex or Simple? Gasser Georg and Stefan Matthias, Eds. Cambridge University Press, 2012. XI + 259 Pp. $95 (Hardback). [REVIEW]A. R. J. Fisher - 2013 - Dialogue 52 (4):1-3.
1 — 50 / 174