Summary The young Hermann Helmholtz, in an 1838 letter home, declared that he always appreciated music much more when he played it for himself. Though a frequent concert-goer, and celebrated for his highly influential 1863 work on the physiological basis of music theory, Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen, it is likely that Helmholtz's enduring engagement with music began with his initial, personal experience of playing music for himself. I develop this idea, shifting the discussion of Helmholtz's work on sound sensation (...) back to its origins, and examine the role of his material interaction with musical instruments and music itself. In his sound sensation studies, Helmholtz understood sound as an external, physical object. But Helmholtz also conceived of sound in musical terms. Further, Helmholtz's particular musical tastes as well as his deeply personal interaction with musical instruments allowed him to reconcile his conception of sound as physical object with his conception of sound as music. Helmholtz's physiological theory of sound sensation was both the product of and constitutive of how he heard and created sound. I argue that Helmholtz himself was the embodied reconciliation of his physiological theory of sound sensation and his belief that musical aesthetics were historically and culturally contingent. (shrink)
In this article, we report on a three-pronged effort to create a hypothetical learning progression for quantification in science. First, we drew from history and philosophy of science to define the quantification competency and develop hypothetical levels of the learning progression. More specifically, the quantification competency refers to the ability to analyze phenomena through abstracting relevant measurable variables from phenomena and observations, investigating the mathematical relationships among the variables, and conceptualizing scientific ideas that explain the mathematical relationships. The quantification learning (...) progression contains four levels of increasing sophistication: level 1, holistic observation; level 2, attributes; level 3, measurable variables; and level 4, relational complexity. Second, we analyzed the practices in the Next Generation Science Standards for current, largely tacit, assumptions about how quantification develops through K-12 education. While several pieces of evidence support the learning progression, we found that quantification was described inconsistently across practices. Third, we used empirical student data from a field test of items in physical and life sciences to illustrate qualitative differences in student thinking that align with levels in the hypothetical learning progression for quantification. By generating a hypothetical learning progression for quantification, we lay the groundwork for future standards development efforts to include this key practice and provide guidance for curriculum developers and instructors in helping students develop robust scientific understanding. (shrink)
The healthcare crisis that has developed in the last two decades during China's economic reform has caused healthcare and hospital financing reforms to be largely experienced by patients as a crisis in the patient–healthcare professional relationship (PPR) at the bedside. The nature and magnitude of this crisis were epitomized by the "Harbin Scandal"—an incident that took place in August 2005 in a Harbin teaching hospital in which the family of an elderly patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for (...) 66 days paid over RMB ¥6 million. The news was publicized globally and ended in the firing of six top hospital administrators including the hospital president and the ICU director. This paper seeks to show that the Chinese healthcare crisis is ultimately linked to a conflict of interests between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), which is inherent in the reformed healthcare system of China. Hence the crisis is, at its core, a crisis of fidelity and confidence that must be restored to the PPR. At the "macro" level, it is simplistic to blame the crisis on the failure of the market system, and at the "micro" level, it is naïve to expect that a contractual understanding of the PPR will effectively restore the confidence of patients. This paper will show that the fiduciary relationship and medical professionalism share similar attributes, with fidelity being the core value of both. It concludes that the loss of medical fidelity implies the dissolution of the PPR and the demise of the medical profession and challenges Chinese HCPs to keep their fidelity as a means to both protect their patients’ interests and to preserve their profession's survival. (shrink)
Rationale: Deep brain stimulation of the hippocampus is proposed for enhancement of memory impaired by injury or disease. Many pre-clinical DBS paradigms can be addressed in epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for seizure localization, since they already have electrodes implanted in brain areas of interest. Even though epilepsy is usually not a memory disorder targeted by DBS, the studies can nevertheless model other memory-impacting disorders, such as Traumatic Brain Injury. Methods: Human patients undergoing Phase II invasive monitoring for intractable epilepsy (...) were implanted with depth electrodes capable of recording neurophysiological signals. Subjects performed a delayed-match-to-sample memory task while hippocampal ensembles from CA1 and CA3 cell layers were recorded to estimate a multi-input, multi-output model of CA3-to-CA1 neural encoding and a memory decoding model to decode memory information from CA3 and CA1 neuronal signals. After model estimation, subjects again performed the DMS task while either MIMO-based or MDM-based patterned stimulation was delivered to CA1 electrode sites during the encoding phase of the DMS trials. Each subject was sorted by prior experience of repeated and/or mild-to-moderate brain injury, TBI, or no history and scored for percentage successful delayed recognition recall on stimulated vs. non-stimulated DMS trials. The subject’s medical history was unknown to the experimenters until after individual subject memory retention results were scored. Results: When examined compared to control subjects, both TBI and RMBI subjects showed increased memory retention in response to both MIMO and MDM-based hippocampal stimulation. Furthermore, effects of stimulation were also greater in subjects who were evaluated as having pre-existing mild-to-moderate memory impairment. Conclusion: These results show that hippocampal stimulation for memory facilitation was more beneficial for subjects who had previously suffered a brain injury, compared to control subjects who had not suffered a brain injury. This study demonstrates that the epilepsy/intracranial recording model can be extended to test the ability of DBS to restore memory function in subjects who previously suffered a brain injury other than epilepsy, and support further investigation into the beneficial effect of DBS in TBI patients. (shrink)
We find ourselves in a media-intensive milieu comprising networks, images, sounds, and text, which we generalize as data and metadata. How can we understand this digital milieu and make sense of these data, not only focusing on their functionalities but also reflecting on our everyday life and existence? How do these material constructions demand a new philosophical understanding? Instead of following the reductionist approaches, which understand the digital milieu as abstract entities such as information and data, this article proposes to (...) approach it from an embodied perspective: objects. The article contrasts digital objects with natural objects (e.g., apples on the table) and technical objects (e.g., hammers) in phenomenological investigations, and proposes to approach digital objects from the concept of “relations,” on the one hand the material relations that are concretized in the development of mark-up languages, such as SGML, HTML, and XML, and on the other hand, Web ontologies, the temporal relations that are produced and conditioned by the artificial memories of data. (shrink)
Hui Shi (370-310B.C.E.?) is a unique one among the pre-Qin scholars. The object and orientation of his scholarship emphasized on “chasing after the materials” or the research for objective knowledge of natural things. He shows a tendency of tolerating and advocating diversity and variety, and intentionally pursuing new and unusual ideas. In certain degree he judges the value of knowledge by its truthfulness rather than its usefulness. As pointed out by Wing-tsit Chan, Hui shi represents a “tendency in ancient China (...) toward intellectualism for its own sake”. (shrink)
Precision medicine is an emerging approach to treatment and disease prevention that relies on linkages between very large datasets of health information that is shared amongst researchers and health professionals. While studies suggest broad support for sharing precision medicine data with researchers at publicly funded institutions, there is reluctance to share health information with private industry for research and development. As the private sector is likely to play an important role in generating public benefits from precision medicine initiatives, it is (...) important to understand what the concerns are and how they might be mitigated. This study reports outcomes of a deliberative method of citizen engagement in Singapore that asked whether sharing precision medicine data with private industry would be permissible, and if so, under what circumstances. Findings from this citizens’ jury suggest sharing with industry would be permissible under certain conditions that are set out in nine recommendations. Implications of the recommendations and their underlying assumptions for policy decision makers are discussed. This study aligns with prior international studies which found conditional acceptance for data sharing with private industry, a public benefit requirement, specific reluctance to share with insurance companies and an emphasis on accountability and transparency to demonstrate trustworthiness. However, our results differ from prior studies in that opt-in consent did not dominate the deliberations as jurors were able to set it aside as an assumed prerequisite for participation in a precision medicine programme. (shrink)
Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code enforcement? (c) Is a (...) code of ethics of any significance? (d) Is the ethical code is enforceable, (e) Would the licensure system interfere with the freedom of expression of the practitioners? (f) Do PR practitioners choose to be ethical (if they do) because they have to be or because they want to be? (g) Would the public interest be virtually assured as a result of a public relations? and (h) Can education in ethics overcome the ethical problems in public relations? (shrink)
Data centers, which provide computing services and gain profits, are indispensable to every city in the information era. They offer computation and storage while consuming energy and generate thermal discharges. To maximize the economic benefit, the existing research studies on the data center workload management mostly leverage the dynamical power model, i.e., the power-aware workload allocation. Nevertheless, we argue that for the complex relationship between the economic benefit and so many attributes, such as computation, energy consumption, thermal distribution, cooling, and (...) equipment life, the thermal distribution dominates the others. Thus, thermal-aware workload allocation is more efficient. From the perspective of economic benefits, we propose a mathematical model for thermal distribution of a data center and study which workload distribution could determinately change the thermal distribution in the dynamic data center runtime, so as to reduce the cost and improve the economic benefits under the guarantee of service provisioning. By solving the thermal environment evaluation indexes, RHI and RTI, as well as heat dissipation models, we define quantitative models for the economic analysis such as energy consumption model for the busy servers and cooling, energy price model, and the profit model of data centers. Numerical simulation results validate our propositions and show that the average temperature of the data center reaches the best values, and the local hot spots are avoided effectively in various situations. As a conclusion, our studies contribute to the thermal management of the dynamic data center runtime for better economic benefits. (shrink)
Users are increasingly turning to the internet to acquire and consume goods. Online purchasing builds demand between customers in modern years. E-commerce is a business strategy that allows individuals and businesses to buy and sell goods and services through the Internet. Ecommerce can be used on computers, tablets, cellphones, and other smart devices, and it operates in four key market categories. The way individuals buy and consume goods and services has changed as a result of e-commerce. People are increasingly using (...) their computers and smart devices to place orders for things that can be delivered quickly to their homes. In the 1960s, ecommerce made use of an electronic system called electronic data interchange to help in document conversion. In the world of e-commerce, Amazon is a monster. It is, in reality, the world's largest online store, and it is still growing. As a result, it has become a significant roadblock in the retail industry, prompting some major merchants to rethink their plans and adjust their focus. This article is based on literary reviews. Developing a research framework for consumer trends, particularly in terms of purchasing behavior, is very much necessary. The sample size for this investigation was determined using a simple rule of thumb for successful partial least squares structural equation modeling estimation. Consumer sentiment tendencies play a major role in this research. This research's most valuable factors include a promotion, price, brand loyalty, product review, and product quality. We looked into how these aspects analyzed a customer's tendency. These are the primary topics of discussion in this study. (shrink)
The validity of Husserl’s early apprehension/content of apprehension schema of intentionality has long been a subject of dispute. In the case of phantasy, commentators often assert that the talk of “non-intentional content,” i.e. the phantasm, is abandoned in Husserl’s mature phenomenology of phantasy, and his subsequent theory of reproductive consciousness aims precisely to replace the previous schema. Against the current dismissive stance in the literature, this paper argues for the centrality of the concept of phantasm in the phenomenology of phantasy. (...) This is achieved in three steps. First, I argue for a functional interpretation of the schema, which maintains that it is not an empirical-genetic account of how non-intentional “sense-data” is transformed into presentations of intentional objects, but a structural exposition of the essential moments of objectifying consciousness. Second, I revisit Husserl’s theory of reproductive consciousness, arguing that in reproduction, what is reproduced is not only the noetic experience but also the hyletic substrate. Hence, the theory of reproductive consciousness, far from calling for an abandonment of the concept of phantasm, instead clarifies this concept and its function in phantasy. To fortify the point that the phantasm is crucial for the phenomenology of phantasy, I examine two features of phantasy, namely the perspectivalness of phantasized objects and the experience of my phantasy Ego being the “zero point of orientation” in phantasy, arguing that these two essential features can only be accounted for by appealing to the concept of phantasm. (shrink)
ABSTRACTThe response comments upon the idea of there being a multidimensionality to reality that G.E.R. Lloyd introduced in recent works. The idea is that while different equally intelligent perceivers might inhabit one and the same world, there can be a plurality of equally valid accounts. In putting forward the idea, Lloyd sought to strike a balance between ‘realism’ and ‘relativism.’ The response proposes two main points. First, the most interesting version of the thesis will have to be about how otherwise (...) incompatible accounts may be equally valid, as for instance, Greek versus early Chinese cosmology. Second, the relevant comparison needs to be between epistemic peers of a certain sort. But once both points are admitted, then it becomes possible for us to make the judgment that entire classes of accounts can be set aside as no longer supported given better evidence as, for instance, in a contest between both Greek and early Chinese cosmologies, and a modern counterpart. This outcome puts some pressure on the relativist aspects of Lloyd's thesis. (shrink)
This study examines the relationship among the employees–organization pro-environmental values fit, supervisors’ PEVs and employees’ pro-environmental behaviors. Informed by the PEB, organizational values and employee–organization fit literature, we propose and test hypotheses that under egoistic, altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, E–O PEVs fit versus non-fit have significant effects on employees’ private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB, identifying supervisors’ PEVs as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the effect of E–O PEVs fit on employees’ private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB varies as the (...) value orientation differs. More specifically, under the context of altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, if the organizational PEVs do not match the employees’ PEVs, especially when the former exceeds the latter, employees’ PEB will rise as the organizational PEVs increase. As for egoistic value orientation, when organizational PEVs exceed employees’ PEVs, not only will public-sphere PEB stop decreasing and tend to stabilize, but also private-sphere PEB will rise to a slight degree. Furthermore, compared with altruistic and biospheric values dimensions, supervisors who promote egoistic PEVs will have a more significant effect on the relationship between global E–O PEVs fit and employees’ PEB. Finally, we suggest that the goals of an organization and its supervisors need to be combined within the actual situation of Chinese corporations to truly implement corporate green practices by balancing the profit goal and the environmental goal. (shrink)
La « philosophie chrétienne » a-t-elle encore un avenir, ou connaît-elle aujourd’hui sa fin ? Le présent article cherche à répondre de manière nuancée à cette question, après avoir évoqué la naissance du problème et le contexte culturel, rappelé l’essentiel de la fameuse querelle des années 1930, et examiné plusieurs tentatives ultérieures d’articuler la rencontre de la philosophie autonome et de l’expérience chrétienne.
Adopting fair value measurement may bring more earnings fluctuations and induce irrational psychology and radical financing behavior of managers. Based on behavioral corporate governance theory, using the sample of Chinese A-share nonfinancial listed companies during 2007–2017, this paper empirically examines the regulatory effect of fair value measurement, that is, whether fair value measurement affects the company's financing decisions when managers have irrational psychological characteristics, i.e., overconfidence. The study found that overconfident managers of the company that have fair value measurement assets (...) will be more aggressive for debt decisions, indicating that fair value measurement has a positively regulatory effect on overconfident managers. (shrink)
Current COVID-19 pandemic and previous SARS/MERS outbreaks have caused a series of major crises to global public health. We must integrate the large and exponentially growing amount of heterogeneous coronavirus data to better understand coronaviruses and associated disease mechanisms, in the interest of developing effective and safe vaccines and drugs. Ontologies have emerged to play an important role in standard knowledge and data representation, integration, sharing, and analysis. We have initiated the development of the community-based Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO). (...) As an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) library ontology, CIDO is an open source and interoperable with other existing OBO ontologies. In this article, the general architecture and the design patterns of the CIDO are introduced, CIDO representation of coronaviruses, phenotypes, anti-coronavirus drugs and medical devices (e.g. ventilators) are illustrated, and an application of CIDO implemented to identify repurposable drug candidates for effective and safe COVID-19 treatment is presented. (shrink)
A well put together introduction to twentieth century philosophy and philosophers. Trotignon has achieved a good balance by dividing his book into two parts, the first containing twenty- to thirty-page summaries of Sartre and Merleau-Ponty, the second paragraph-long to eight-page presentations of lesser figures. Sartre and Merleau-Ponty are set at two extremes of Husserlian existentialist phenomenology through a series of polarizations : e.g., Sartre's Husserl is the Husserl of Ideen I, Merleau-Ponty's the Husserl of Erfahrung und Urteil, Méditations cartésiennes, and (...) the Krisis. Trotignon's précis of minor figures, consistently to the point, fall into three categories: "Phenomenological currents" "Philosophy of history", and "Twenty years after or the crisis of philosophy". In concluding, Trotignon announces Structuralism, a new "Practical subjectivity," as the philosophy of the future. There follows a three-page bibliography of primary sources for minor figures, with primary and secondary sources for Sartre and Merleau-Ponty.--C. M. R. (shrink)
Long-lasting debates, caused by conflicting viewpoints among biometrists on the phenomena of rhythmic growth in plant shoots, are at last being settled on certain crucial points. Most workers today agree that not all symmetrical constructions in plants can be explained by the application of the phyllotaxis theory. This theory explains adequately the orthostichous arrangement of leaves on growing photosynthetic apices, but fails in the case of non-photosynthetic reproductive organs.In the present paper three successive systems of shoot arrangement are described: phyllotaxis (...) for cauline leaves, anthotaxis for sporophylls, and semataxis for semaphylls . Each of these systems serves a different purpose: photosynthesis, reproduction and advertisement, and is accordingly adapted to its special function. “Phyllotaxis” and “anthotaxis” are classical concepts dealing with the arrangement of leaves and flowers; “semataxis” is a new term used in this paper to describe the arrangements of semaphylls.Goethe's classical theory of the metamorphosis of plants and his hypothetical “Urpflanze” are discussed in this paper from the viewpoint of the phyllotaxis-semataxis relation.Nach den langen Debatten über die Anwendbarkeit der Phyllotaxistheorie zur Erklärung der Blatt- und Blütenstellungen, hat man sich schliesslich über einige alte Streitfragen geeinigt. Man nimmt nun ganz allgemein an, dass nicht alle symmetrische Bildungen an Pflanzen sich mit der Anwendung der Phyllotaxisgesetze und Fibonazzi Reihe begründen lassen. Diese Theorie erklärt glaubwürdig die rhythmische Anordnung der vegetativen Blätter an den photosynthetischen Sprossen, nicht aber die symmetrischen Bildungen in den Blüten.In dem vorliegenden Aufsatz sind drei historisch nacheinander folgenden Entwicklungssysteme: Phyllotaxis, für die vegetativen Blätter, Anthotaxis für Sporophyllen und Semataxis für die Semaphyllen eingehend diskutiert worden. „Phyllotaxis” ist ein klassischer Begriff für die Anordnung der Blätter; “Anthotaxis” wurde später eingeführt, ist bis jetzt aber nur wenig in diesem Sinne gebraucht und deshalb in diesem Aufsatz neu definiert worden. „Semataxis” ist neu. Sie betrifft die Anordnung der Semaphyllen, der auffälligen Teile der von den Insekten bestäubten Blüten der höheren Pflanzen. Jedes von diesen Systemen dient einem bestimmten Zweck. Die phyllotaktische Anordnung der vegetativen Blätter bezweckt die rationellste Photosynthese. Anthotaxis ist die zweckmässigste Ordnung der Sporophyllen für die mechanische Bestäubung und Fruchtbildung, während Semataxis schliesslich die Ankündigung der insektenbestäubten Blüten bedeutet. Alle diese Systeme sind ihren besonderen Funktionen eingehend angepasst.Obwohl die historische Entwicklung der Sprossysteme der höheren Pflanzen nach der Reihenfolge: Phyllotaxis →Anthotaxis → Semataxis erfolgt, sind in dem vorliegenden Aufsatz mehrere Ausnahmen mit umgekehrter Richtung angeführt. Semataktische Bautypen können unmittelbar von Phyllotaxis, und anthotaktische Anordnungen von Semataxis abgeleitet werden.Ferner sind in diesem Aufsatz die klassischen Theorien vonGoethe über die Metamorphose der Pflanzen und die hypothetische “Urpflanze” von dem neuen Gesichtswinkel der Phyllotaxis- und Semataxislehre eingehend diskutiert worden.Après de longs débats sur le phénomène de la croissance rhythmique des pousses des plantes, les biométristes s'accordent aujourd'hui sur certains points essentiels de la discussion. Au contraire des auteurs antérieurs, les chercheurs d'aujourd'hui admettent que toutes les constructions symétriques des plantes ne s'expliquent pas par l'application de la théorie de phyllotaxie. Cette théorie explique suffisamment la disposition orthostichique des feuilles sur des sommets photosynthétiques croissants, mais échoue dans le cas des organes reproductifs non-photosynthétiques.Dans le présent écrit trois systèmes successifs d'arrangements de pousses sont décrits: phyllotaxie pour feuilles caulines, anthotaxie pour sporophylles et sémataxie pour sémaphylles . Chacun de ces systèmes sert à des fins différents: à la photosynthèse, à la reproduction et à l'avertissement, et s'adapte par conséquent à sa propre fonction.Phyllotaxie et anthotaxie sont des conceptions classiques pour désigner la disposition des feuilles et des fleurs, sémataxie est un term nouveau qui sert à désigner dans cette étude l'arrangement des sémaphylles.La théorie classique deGoethe sur la métamorphose des plantes et son hypothétique „Urpflanze” sont discutées dans cet écrit du point de vue de la relation existant entre la phyllotaxie et la sémataxie. (shrink)
Creativity is an important 21st Century skill that enhances students’ ability to see new opportunities, confront new challenges, and adapt flexibly to the changing study, work and life situations. To nurture students with strong self-efficacy in creative thinking is as important as the contexts and strategies involved in its application. But how to develop sustainable interventions to promote students’ self-efficacy in creativity is a long-lasting challenge. This study presents a simple and relatively cost-effective instructional intervention, i.e., self-assessment mind maps, and (...) examines its effect on students’ self-efficacy in creativity, self-efficacy in learning English, and academic performance in English language tests. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent design was adopted for the experimental and control groups of students in a Hong Kong primary school in 2021/22 Spring semester. The results show that students from the experimental group significantly outperformed those from the control group on self-efficacy in creativity after the intervention. However, the intervention did not improve students’ self-efficacy and test performance in English learning. The findings demonstrate the potential of self-assessment mind maps as an effective and sustainable instruction intervention to promote students’ higher-order abilities. This study sheds light on designing sustainable instructional strategies for empowerment in creativity. (shrink)
Panorama succinct de la réflexion bioéthique à l’aube du XXIe siècle; extension présente du champ de recherche, réseau institutionnel , structures de formation et d’enseignement, revues et journaux... La bioéthique bénéficie aujourd’hui d’un large consensus concernant une série de valeurs. L’auteur s’attache à en préciser les limites et à expliquer par ailleurs les raisons de l’indéniable pluralisme qui marque encore la réflexion en ce domaine. Il souligne enfin la contribution souhaitée de la part des Universités catholiques en la matière.
C’est grâce à son essai Politische Romantik, publié en 1919, que Carl Schmitt fait une entrée remarquée sur la scène intellectuelle allemande. L’ouvrage se présente comme une charge systématique et radicale contre la tradition allemande du « romantisme politique », et fut vivement discuté dans les années qui suivirent sa publication. Mais aujourd’hui il se trouve relégué parmi les œuvres de jeunesse de Schmitt et reste rarement étudié par la recherche, qui le lit au mieux comme une belle contribution à (...) l’histoire culturelle du xixe siècle.Pourtant, une étude approfondie de l’essai, ainsi que du contexte historique dans lequel il s’insère, fait apparaître que ce n’est pas dans une telle perspective que Politische Romantik manifeste toute sa portée : bien plus qu’une étude historique, cet essai constitue un élément de réponse à la crise du conservatisme allemand tel qu’il apparaît dans l’après-guerre. Le rejet du « romantisme politique » marque la rupture de Schmitt avec l’idéal « apolitique » des intellectuels allemands de l’époque, et par là constitue le premier moment du projet schmittien, tel qu’il se verra développé de manière croisée dans son étude sur le catholicisme et sa Théologie politique. (shrink)
Vir a ser cidadão: Educação, Política e Psicologia do Desenvolvimento Resumo: Considerando a tese honnethiana de que, hodiernamente, há um desenlace entre Educação e Política, e afirmando um forte nexo entre essas áreas no pensamento de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, neste trabalho, apresentamos alguns aspectos de como, para este, é possível que o ser humano, como membro da espécie, venha a ser cidadão. Em seguida, contando com a crítica de Nussbaum sobre como muitas propostas educacionais não explicitam uma psicologia do desenvolvimento, aventamos (...) uma vinculação entre Educação, Política e ideias psicológicas em Rousseau. Adiante, trazemos elementos da pesquisa psicogenética de Jean Piaget, propondo que esse tipo de pesquisa permite um fortalecimento do nexo entre as áreas da Educação, Política e, agora, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento, contribuindo para a discussão ainda atual acerca do vir a ser cidadão. Palavras-chave: Cidadão; Desenvolvimento; Formação; Rousseau; Piaget. Becoming a citizen: Education, Politics and Developmental Psychology: Considering the Honnethian thesis that there is today a disconnexion between Education and Politics, and asserting a strong link between these fields in the thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in this work we present some aspects of how, for him, it is possible for a human, as a member of the species, to become a citizen. Then, relying on Nussbaum's critique of the fact that many educational proposals do not make developmental psychology explicit, we suggest a link between Education, Politics and psychological ideas in Rousseau. Ahead, we bring elements of Jean Piaget's psychogenetic research, proposing that this type of research allows a strengthening of the nexus between the fields of Education, Politics and, now, Developmental Psychology, contributing to the still current discussion about becoming a citizen. Keywords: Citizen; Development; Formation; Rousseau; Piaget. Devenir citoyen: Éducation, Politique et Psychologie du développement Résumé: Considérant la thèse honnéthienne selon laquelle, aujourd'hui, il y a une déconnexion entre éducation et politique, et affirmant un lien fort entre ces domaines dans la pensée de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, nous présentons dans cette étude certains aspects de la façon dont, pour lui, il est possible pour l’être humain, en tant que membre de l'espèce, devenir citoyen. Puis, en nous appuyant sur la critique de Nussbaum sur le nombre de propositions éducatives qui ne rendrent pas explicite une psychologie du développement, nous avons suggéré un lien entre l'éducation, la politique et les idées psychologiques chez Rousseau. En avant, nous apportons des éléments de la recherche psychogénétique de Jean Piaget, en proposant que ce type de recherche permette un renforcement du lien entre les domaines de l'éducation, de la politique et, maintenant, de la psychologie du développement, contribuant à la discussion encore actuelle sur le devenir citoyen. Mots-clés: Citoyen ; Développement ; Formation ; Rousseau ; Piaget. Data de registro: 25/02/2021 Data de aceite: 19/01/2022. (shrink)
Joining the ongoing academic debates around medical students’ alternative career choices, this research examines the role of family in medical school attendees’ entrepreneurial intention. Specifically, this study decomposes the multidimensionality of family embeddedness and highlights the mediated nature of the family–EI relationship. The empirical analysis relied on data from graduation year medical students from diverse geographical locations and from different institution types in China. These data were collected from a total of 687 questionnaires covering the basic information of individual, parents, (...) and family composition, as well as the measuring scale of EI. Examining medical students’ EI and its antecedents provide a dual-missing-link in the extant knowledge, i.e., it adds the medical school piece to the overall picture of university students’ EI, and equally important, it de-trivializes entrepreneurship from the extant theorizations of medical students’ career choices. This study also bears implications for educators, practitioners, and policymakers interested in better understanding EI of medical school attendees and family embeddedness. (shrink)
The Platform Sutra, which dates back to the seventh century C.E., is one of the classic documents of Chinese philosophy and is the intellectual autobiography of Hui Neng, the Sixth Patriarch of Ch’an Buddhism. In the Platform Sutra, the Sixth Patriarch demonstrates that the spiritual and intellectual problems of consciousness stem from a false adherence to the dualistic standpoint. The Sixth Patriarch utilizes ingenious arguments to demonstrate how one can escape the problems of dualism. An example of a constructive engagement (...) between Chinese philosophy and Searle is to compare and contrast the arguments of Hui Neng with those of Searle. The Sixth Patriarch and Searle both reach a rather similar solution to the problem of dualism—to stop counting. In the case of the Sixth Patriarch, his solution possesses the goal of enabling the reader to achieve a spiritual liberation. Searle, in contrast, addresses the troubling epistemological problems of dualism. Searle proposes a causal monism: he claims consciousness is a state of the brain, that it is caused by processes in the brain, that it is a feature of the brain, and that it is all these at the same time. This article aims to highlight Searle’s arguments and impressive insights; it also aims to show the connection between Searle’s master insight concerning the non-duality of consciousness and the Sixth Patriarch’s realization that the difficulties of understanding consciousness stem from the formulation of the description itself. (shrink)
Tejera, strongly influenced by Dewey, operates on the working hypothesis that art is both a kind of experience and a kind of making, and addresses himself to the "inextricably related" problems of the ends and the creation of art. Creativity becomes the key; man is viewed as "the creative animal," and artistic creation is seen as a sort of natural human activity, to be understood in relation to all other human activities. Most traditional problems of aesthetics are taken up at (...) some point, but it is not quite clear how all the parts fit together. The book contains forty-five prints and, considered in terms of its physical format, is something of a work of art in its own right.—A. E. J. (shrink)
Essays on various aspects of contemporary American philosophy by nine contemporary American philosophers. The essays vary in type, ranging from quick surveys of current positions through surveys used as foils for personal opinions and defenses of particular meta-philosophical positions to contributions to particular fields which say nothing about current trends. Presumably aimed at a continental audience, the book should prove helpful to anyone who knows nothing about contemporary American philosophy.—A. E. J.
Contrary to Favrholdt's opinion, a book that "contains many mistakes" may nevertheless be a good book; it may even be a masterpiece. Thus, although Favrholdt's Interpretation contains many mistakes, it is nevertheless a good book. Unlike most commentaries on the Tractatus, Favrholdt makes a concerted effort to come to grips with the work as a whole. He tries to show that the thesis of extensionality is fundamental, and that the rest of the Tractatus is a working out of the consequences (...) of that thesis. Several of his interpretations are highly questionable, and he has a tendency to give up too easily on some crucial points. But he does give us an original and highly provocative treatment.—A. E. J. (shrink)
Il est assez commun de se représenter le bûcheron comme un être plutôt fruste, qualifié avant tout par sa force au service d’une tâche peu valorisée. Or cette représentation se révèle tronquée, car l’équation qui associe la force à l’outil ne peut se réaliser sans le contrôle du geste. Plus encore, l’écoute des témoignages recueillis auprès des forestiers nous apprend que ce travail réclame d’efficaces systèmes de précision. C’est là une qualification oubliée, pourtant reconnue à part entière dès l’Iliade, qui (...) nous en donne deux témoins privilégiés par l’anthropologie historique de la Grèce, la mètis, l’« intelligence rusée », prêtée au kybérnêtês, le pilote du navire, au conducteur de char et, en bonne première place, au bûcheron. La théorie du contrôle nous permet maintenant de dépasser le flou conceptuel de la notion historiquement pré-théorique de mètis, la ruse s’appliquant à des cas bien trop divers, pour lui préférer les développements les plus récents d’une science du contrôle de l’action, théorisée depuis Wiener, nourrissant aujourd’hui les projets les mieux financés de cyber-cerveaux informatiques, au service des neurosciences et de la médecine. Le travail forestier, qui réclame une coordination maîtrisée des gestes, y compris de leurs commandes vocales dans le chant de travail — qu’un seul ou plusieurs bûcherons en équipe soient mobilisés —, nous en fournit une parfaite illustration. The woodcutter is commonly represented as a fairly boorish person, reduced to brute force and low-level tasks. But this representation is partial because a simplistic inferential link between an axe and strength obliterates that nothing can happen without any modus operandi, i.e. a set of neural controls over gestures. Indeed, listening to woodcutter’s testimonies led us to elicit that this work needs efficient precision systems. This high level of qualification was acknowledged at least since Homer’s Iliad as evidenced by two favourite telltales from historical anthropology of Ancient Greece: mètis ascribed to kybérnêtês, the ship’s pilot as to the chariot-driver and in the first rank to the woodcutter. Control theory allows now to avoid the fuzziness of meaning of the pre-theoretical notion of mètis to focus on a domain steadily developed since Wiener, now part of costly cyber-brain projects in informatics, for neuroscience and medicine. Forest work, which requires skilled gesture coordination, with vocal commands in a worksong—for one or more woodcutters being engaged in the task—is such a telling case. (shrink)
In the 1963 Philosophical Lecture, Henriette Hertz Trust, of the British Academy, Hare defends the distinction between descriptive and evaluative meaning. He attacks descriptivists on the grounds that they confuse a logical connection between the word "good" and other words with a logical connection between the word "good" and certain things. The paper presupposes an acquaintance with the debate over descriptivism, and it is never clear precisely what view Hare is attacking.—A. E. J.
Each member of pragmatism's triumvirate is the subject of a separate study which sketches his intellectual biography, surveys his philosophical position, and takes account of the typical criticisms. The accounts are not subtle.--A. E. F.
L'Exhortation apostolique post-synodale de Jean-Paul II sur la vie consacrée et sur sa mission dans l'Eglise et dans le monde d'aujourd'hui a suscité un certain nombre de débats. L'A. s'est concentré ici sur une question particulière : la façon dont l'Esprit-Saint transforme l'existence du croyant qui s'est engagé dans la vie consacrée. La méthode que l'A. a choisie pour traiter la question tend à faire ressortir la théologie paulinienne soujacente à ce problème.