Results for '*Experimentation'

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  1. Christian Mannes.Learning Sensory-Motor Coordination Experimentation - 1990 - In G. Dorffner (ed.), Konnektionismus in Artificial Intelligence Und Kognitionsforschung. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 95.
     
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  2. A philosophers changing views.M. Fox & Animal Experimentation - 1987 - Between the Species 3 (2):55-80.
     
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  3.  13
    Medical experimentation: personal integrity and social policy.Charles Fried - 2016 - New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Edited by Franklin G. Miller & Alan Wertheimer.
    This new edition of Charles Fried's 'Medical Experimentation' includes a general introduction by Franklin Miller and the late Alan Wertheimer, a reprint of the 1974 text, an in-depth analysis by Harvard Law School scholars I. Glenn Cohen and D. James Greiner, and a new essay by Fried reflecting on the original text and how it applies to the contemporary landscape of medicine and medical experimentation.
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  4. Experimentation in Cognitive Neuroscience and Cognitive Neurobiology.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2014 - In Levy Neil & Clausen Jens (eds.), Handbook on Neuroethics. Springer.
    Neuroscience is a laboratory-based science that spans multiple levels of analysis from molecular genetics to behavior. At every level of analysis experiments are designed in order to answer empirical questions about phenomena of interest. Understanding the nature and structure of experimentation in neuroscience is fundamental for assessing the quality of the evidence produced by such experiments and the kinds of claims that are warranted by the data. This article provides a general conceptual framework for thinking about evidence and experimentation in (...)
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  5.  4
    Experimentation.Marcel Weber - 2008 - In Sahorta Sarkar & Anya Plutynski (eds.), Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Blackwell. pp. 472–488.
    This chapter contains section titled: The Diversity of Experimental Practices in Biology Model Organisms Experimental Systems and the “New Experimentalism” in Biology The Nature of Evidence Objectivity and Realism Acknowledgment References Further Reading.
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  6.  51
    Thought-experimentation and mathematical innovation.Eduard Glas - 1999 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 30 (1):1-19.
  7. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.Evelyn B. Pluhar - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):333-355.
    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic “argument from marginal cases” against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections (...)
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  8.  13
    Transformative Experimentation, Perspectival Diversity, and the Polycentric Liberal Order.Aylon R. Manor - 2022 - Res Publica 28 (2):323-338.
    Proponents of political experiments in living, such as Elizabeth Anderson and Ryan Muldoon, often emphasize their potential to generate useful observational data about the relation between social rules and ethically desirable outcomes. This paper highlights another epistemic dimension of political experiments: their potential to transform the cognitive perspectives of participants. I argue that this transformative dimension of experimentation offers an endogenous societal mechanism for increasing perspectival diversity. I explore the implications of this mechanism for institutional design.
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  9. Human experimentation at the intersections of biolaw and international criminal law : the case of unethical clinical trials in developing countries.Stefania Negri - 2020 - In Caroline Fournet & Anja Matwijkiw (eds.), Biolaw and international criminal law: towards interdisciplinary synergies. Boston: Brill Nijhoff.
     
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  10. Experimentation and Scientific Realism.Ian Hacking - 1982 - Philosophical Topics 13 (1):71-87.
  11.  80
    Animal experimentation.Roman Kolar - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):111-122.
    Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the “3Rs” concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The (...)
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  12.  24
    Human experimentation: a guided step into the unknown.William A. Silverman - 1985 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Spectacular treatment disasters in recent years have made it clear that informal "let's-try-it-and-see" methods of testing new proposals are more risky now than ever before, and have led many to call for a halt to experimentation in clinical medicine. In this easy-tp-read, philosophical guide to human experimentation, William Silverman pleads for wider use of randomized clinical trials, citing many examples that show how careful trials can overturn preconceived or ill-conceived notions of a therapy's effectiveness and lead to a clearer understanding (...)
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  13.  47
    Experimentation and Scientific Realism.Ian Hacking - 1982 - Philosophical Topics 13 (1):71-87.
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  14.  23
    Experimentation animale et éthique.Hugo Cousillas - 2013 - Archai: Revista de Estudos Sobre as Origens Do Pensamento Ocidental 11:111-116.
    L’expérimentation animale consiste à tester chez l›animal des questions que l›on se pose chez l’Homme. En recherches appliquées, ces expérimentations nous fournissent des données essentielles dans la lutte contre les maladies humaines ainsi qu’en médecine vétérinaire. Em recherches fondamentales, ces expérimentations qui permettent de mieux connaitre l’Homme et l’Animal nous montrent que le fossé que certains voient entre l’espèce humaine et les animaux n’a probablement pas l’importance qu’on lui donne. Ces recherches nous montrent que certains animaux ont quelquefois des capacités (...)
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  15.  3
    Sex and Socratic Experimentation.Sisi Chen & George T. Hole - 2010-09-24 - In Fritz Allhoff, Michael Bruce & Robert M. Stewart (eds.), College Sex ‐ Philosophy for Everyone. Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 15–27.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Where It's At Let's Experiment Hooking Up Closer Up Problems and Socratic Experimentation A Daring Ideal.
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  16.  58
    Exploratory Experimentation and the Role of Histochemical Techniques in the Work of Jean Brachet, 1938-1952.Richard M. Burian - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (1):27 - 45.
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  17. Embryo Experimentation.Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson & Pascal Kasimba (eds.) - 1992 - Cambridge University Press.
    New developments in reproductive technology have made headlines since the birth of the world's first in vitro fertilization baby in 1978. But is embryo experimentation ethically acceptable? What is the moral status of the early human embryo? And how should a democratic society deal with so controversial an issue, where conflicting views are based on differing religious and philosophical positions? These controversial questions are the subject of this book, which, as a current compendium of ideas and arguments on the subject, (...)
     
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  18.  98
    Experimentation by Industrial Selection.Bennett Holman & Justin Bruner - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (5):1008-1019.
    Industry is a major source of funding for scientific research. There is also a growing concern for how it corrupts researchers faced with conflicts of interest. As such, the debate has focused on whether researchers have maintained their integrity. In this article we draw on both the history of medicine and formal modeling to argue that given methodological diversity and a merit-based system, industry funding can bias a community without corrupting any particular individual. We close by considering a policy solution (...)
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  19.  6
    Regulating Experimentation in Research and Medical Practice.Paul Ulhas Macneill - 2009 - In Helga Kuhse & Peter Singer (eds.), A Companion to Bioethics. Oxford, UK: Wiley‐Blackwell. pp. 469–486.
    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction History of Experimentation on Human Beings Regulation of Human Experimentation Guidelines, Regulations and Directives to Regulate Human Experimentation Regulation of Experimentation in Surgery and Clinical Medicine Discussion References.
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  20.  49
    Induction, Experimentation and Causation in the Social Sciences.Lars-Göran Johansson - 2021 - Philosophies 6 (4):105.
    Inductive thinking is a universal human habit; we generalise from our experiences the best we can. The induction problem is to identify which observed regularities provide reasonable justification for inductive conclusions. In the natural sciences, we can often use strict laws in making successful inferences about unobserved states of affairs. In the social sciences, by contrast, we have no strict laws, only regularities which most often are conditioned on ceteris paribus clauses. This makes it much more difficult to make reliable (...)
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  21.  8
    Medical experimentation, informed consent and using people.An Cocking Andju Stin Oakledey - 1994 - Bioethics 8 (4):293–311.
  22. Animal Experimentation and the Argument from Limited Resources.Charles K. Fink - 1991 - Between the Species 7 (2):90-95.
    Animal rights activists are often accused of caring more about animals than about human beings. How, it is asked, can activists condemn the use of animals in biomedical research—research that improves human health and saves human lives? In this article, I argue that even if animal experimentation might eventually provide cures for many serious diseases, given the present state of the world, we are not justified supporting this research; rather, we ought to devote our limited resources to other forms of (...)
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  23. Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - 2017 - In Springer handbook of model-based science (2017). Springer. pp. 857-878.
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  24.  44
    Animal Experimentation as a Form of Rescue.Alexander Zambrano - 2016 - Between the Species 19 (1).
    In this paper I explore a new approach to the ethics of animal experimentation by conceiving of it as a form of rescue. The notion of rescue, I suggest, involves some moral agent performing an action or series of actions, whose end is to prevent or alleviate serious harm to another party, harm that otherwise would have occurred or would have continued to occur, had that moral agent not intervened. Animal experiments that are utilized as a means to alleviate human (...)
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  25.  19
    Experimentation in Children: Sharing in Sociality.Richard A. Mccormick - 1976 - Hastings Center Report 6 (6):41-46.
  26.  4
    Expérimentation d’un dispositif d’accompagnement axé sur les forces afin de former des stagiaires selon la psychopédagogie du bien-être.Nancy Goyette - 2019 - Revue Phronesis 8 (1-2):35-47.
    This article presents the experimentation of a device for trainees focusing on strengths, in the context of initial university training. Based on a theoretical corpus and self-analysis of the practices of a supervisor, this device was implemented with a dozen trainees. The concepts of psychopedagogy of well-being, positive professional identity, as well as the postures of supervisors will explore how a force-based approach to coaching trainees can help them develop their professional skills. but also to a positive identity development in (...)
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  27.  10
    Experimentation without Representation.Rebecca Dresser - 2018 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 40 (2):3-7.
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  28.  45
    “Exploratory experimentation” as a probe into the relation between historiography and philosophy of science.Jutta Schickore - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 55:20-26.
  29.  17
    Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change.Kathrin Herrmann & Kimberley Jayne (eds.) - 2019 - Brill.
    _Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change_ critically appraises current animal use in science and discusses ways in which we can contribute to a paradigm change towards human-biology based approaches.
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  30. Experimentation in Avicenna's Philosophy by Referring to Its Practical Application in His Works on Natural Sciences.Roohollah Fadaei & Reza Akbari - 2019 - Philosophy and Kalam 51 (2):245ß260.
    Avicenna, beside his theoretical discussions about experimentation, practically applied his experimental method to natural sciences studies such as medicine, biology, and meteorology. His theoretical discussions subsume propositions concerning the conditions under which experimental knowledge is attained, the components of this knowledge and its functions. Some of these propositions are as follows: necessity of recurrent observations for acquiring experimental knowledge, certainty plus conditional universality of such knowledge, and its role as demonstrative premises. Investigating the application of his theory in natural sciences (...)
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  31.  24
    Medical experimentation, informed consent and using people.de An Cocking & Ju Stin Oakley - 1994 - Bioethics 8 (4):293-311.
    ABSTRACT In this paper we argue that the standard focus on problems of informed consent in debates about the ethics of human experimentation is inadequate because it fails to capture a more fundamental way in which such experiments may be wrong. Taking clinical trials as our case in point, we suggest that it is the moral offence of using people as mere means which better characterizes what is wrong with violations of personal autonomy in certain kinds of clinical trials. This (...)
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  32.  55
    Animal experimentation: A philosopher's changing views.Michael Allen Fox - 1987 - Between the Species 3 (2):3.
  33.  72
    Exploratory experimentation in experimental mathematics: A glimpse at the PSLQ algorithm.Henrik Kragh Sørensen - 2010 - In Benedikt Löwe & Thomas Müller (eds.), PhiMSAMP. Philosophy of Mathematics: Sociological Aspects and Mathematical Practice. College Publications. pp. 341--360.
    In the present paper, I go beyond these examples by bringing into play an example that I nd more experimental in nature, namely that of the use of the so-called PSLQ algorithm in researching integer relations between numerical constants. It is the purpose of this paper to combine a historical presentation with a preliminary exploration of some philosophical aspects of the notion of experiment in experimental mathematics. This dual goal will be sought by analysing these aspects as they are presented (...)
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  34. L’expérimentation dans les sciences.C. Allamel-Raffin, J. L. Gangloff & Y. Gingras (eds.) - 2022 - Editions matériologiques.
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  35. Experimentation versus Theory Choice: A Social-Epistemological Approach.Marcel Weber - 2011 - In Hans Bernhard Schmid, Daniel Sirtes & Marcel Weber (eds.), Collective Epistemology. Ontos. pp. 20--203.
  36.  30
    Embryo experimentation: is there a case for moving beyond the ‘14-day rule’.Grant Castelyn - 2020 - Monash Bioethics Review 38 (2):181-196.
    Recent scientific advances have indicated that it may be technically feasible to sustain human embryos in vitro beyond 14 days. Research beyond this stage is currently restricted by a guideline known as the 14-day rule. Since the advances in embryo culturing there have been calls to extend the current limit. Much of the current debate concerning an extension has regarded the 14-day rule as a political compromise and has, therefore, focused on policy concerns rather than assessing the philosophical foundations of (...)
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  37.  12
    Exploratory experimentation and taxonomy of experimentation.Milutin Stojanovic - 2013 - Filozofija I Društvo 24 (4):199-217.
    Transformation of the philosophy of science during the last three decades is largely based on the philosophers? insights in the experimental side of science. Central issues in this new field, such as classification of basic elements and types of experimentation, are still developing. Subject of this work will be one of these types, Steinle?s?exploratory experimentation?, and its place in taxonomy of experimentation. After presenting an array of historical cases of experimentation, I analyze Elliott?s systematization of EE subtypes. I will claim (...)
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  38.  27
    Experimentation in Institutions: Ethics, Creativity, and Existential Competence.Aislinn O’Donnell - 2017 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 37 (1):31-46.
    The existential, experiential, ethical, pathic and pre-pathic dimensions of education are essential for the creative composition of subjectivities in institutional spaces, yet educational research and policy tend increasingly to privilege technical discourses and prescriptive approaches both when evaluating ‘what is effective in education’ and when determining educational policy. This essay explores those aspects of the educational experience and educational institutions that are often felt and sensed pre-cognitively by students, parents and teachers, but are seldom given further elaboration or articulation in (...)
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  39.  46
    Self-experimentation as a source of new ideas: Ten examples about sleep, mood, health, and weight.Seth Roberts - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):227-262.
    Little is known about how to generate plausible new scientific ideas. So it is noteworthy that 12 years of self-experimentation led to the discovery of several surprising cause-effect relationships and suggested a new theory of weight control, an unusually high rate of new ideas. The cause-effect relationships were: (1) Seeing faces in the morning on television decreased mood in the evening (>10 hrs later) and improved mood the next day (>24 hrs later), yet had no detectable effect before that (0–10 (...)
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  40.  16
    Self-experimentation and self-management: Allies in combination therapies.Irene Grote - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):266-267.
    Self-experimentation is a valuable companion to self-management in the benefit of pharmaco-cognitive-behavior combination therapies. However, data on individuals participating as active therapeutic agents are sparse. Smoking cessation therapy is an example. Roberts' self-experimentation suggests trying more diversity in research to generate new ideas. This may inform current approaches to the cessation of smoking.
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  41.  48
    Experimentation, Curiosity, and Forgetting.Rebecca Bamford - 2019 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 50 (1):11-32.
    Bernard Reginster has argued that in "Nietzsche's terminology, 'experimentation [Versuch]' is a paradigmatic exercise of curiosity."1 According to Reginster, the kind of curiosity in question, as far as Nietzsche's concept of the free spirit is concerned, is not the state of knowing or of being certain of the truth of some proposition, but is rather a matter of the activity or process of truth seeking and of inquiry.2 My own view is very similar: I have argued that experimentalism is a (...)
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  42.  68
    Convenience experimentation.Ulrich Krohs - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):52-57.
  43.  23
    Human experimentation.C. Susanne - 1997 - Global Bioethics 10 (1-4):123-128.
    Human experimentation can have different meanings: indeed, with the development of medical research, therapeutic acts have to be distinguished from acts of cognitive values. For each kind of acts, specific conditions of acceptability and specific protections of human beings have to be defined.Human experimentation must be envisaged at different levels to evaluate ethical aspects: its scientific value, the risks, benefits envisaged, the populations implicated, etc…The individual consent must be present too in the relationship between the subject and the doctors. In (...)
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  44.  24
    Experimentation with human subjects: a critique of the views of Hans Jonas.A. Schafer - 1983 - Journal of Medical Ethics 9 (2):76-79.
    The ethics of experimentation on human subjects has become the subject of much debate among medical scientists and philosophers. Ethical problems and conflicts of interest become especially serious when research subjects are recruited from the class of patients. Are patients who are ill and suffering in a position to give voluntary and informed consent? Are there inevitable conflicts of interest and moral obligation when a personal physician recruits his own patients for an experiment designed partly to advance scientific knowledge and (...)
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  45.  12
    The Philosophy of Scientific Experimentation.Hans Radder (ed.) - 2003 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Since the late 1980s, the neglect of experiment by philosophers and historians of science has been replaced by a keen interest in the subject. In this volume, a number of prominent philosophers of experiment directly address basic theoretical questions, develop existing philosophical accounts, and offer novel perspectives on the subject, rather than rely exclusively on historical cases of experimental practice. Each essay examines one or more of six interconnected themes that run throughout the collection: the philosophical implications of actively and (...)
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  46. From experimentation to structural change: fostering institutional entrepreneurship for public engagement in research and innovation.Joshua Cohen & Vincent Blok - 2023 - Public Understanding of Science.
    Many researchers experiment with participatory settings to increase public engagement in research and innovation (R&I). Because of their temporary nature, it often remains unclear how such participatory experiments can contribute to structural change. This paper empirically explores options for bridging this gap. It analyzes how participants can be supported to act as institutional entrepreneurs to actively promote public engagement in R&I. To draw lessons, we analyze empirical material gathered on nineteen Social Labs which were set up to promote the uptake (...)
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  47.  20
    Self-experimentation chronomics for health surveillance and science; also transdisciplinary civic duty?Franz Halberg, Germaine Cornélissen & Barbara Schack - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):267-269.
    Self-surveillance and self-experimentation are of concern to everyone interested in finding out the factors that increase one's risk of stroke from.
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  48. Experimentation On Trial. Why Should One Take Part In Medical Research?David Heyd - 1996 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 4.
    The article discusses the issue of the justification of experimenting on human subjects from the point of view of the individual participant. The discussion is conducted on three levels, which can be viewed as a hierarchy:I. Rationality: does one have good self-regarding reasons to subject oneself to medical experimentation?II. Justice: does one have a duty or an obligation to take part in medical research?III. Virtue: ought one contribute to the long-term attempt to promote medical knowledge and the overall health of (...)
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  49.  34
    Spinoza, experimentation and education: How things teach us.Aislinn O’Donnell - 2018 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 50 (9):819-829.
    This essay focuses on three primary issues i. The conceptual resources offered by Spinoza to challenge the idealism and perfectionism underpinning much educational theory and dominant educational imaginaries; ii. His descriptions of a non-ideal, practical and systematic approach to developing understanding that could be applied to educational theorising and practice; and iii. The potential for a different vision of education premised upon understanding the human as simply a part of nature. Decentring the human and treating affective and mental life as (...)
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  50.  3
    Behavioral Experimentation.Alexander Pollatsek & Keith Rayner - 2017 - In William Bechtel & George Graham (eds.), A Companion to Cognitive Science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 352–370.
    How might one study the complex processes of the mind? The method favored by early philosophers and psychologists was introspection. While introspection is still used today, perhaps the major source of evidence used by cognitive scientists to understand cognition is data collected from experiments in which subjects are engaged in some type of relevant task. While these data all come from some type of experiment, the methods differ widely, and, as we shall see, the type of method is strongly influenced (...)
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