Results for ' symboles'

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  1. Review of symbolic logic. [REVIEW]Symbolic Logic - 2008 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 14 (3):276.
  2. Dying as a social-symbolic process.Social-Symbolic Death - forthcoming - Humanitas.
     
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  3. European summer meeting of the association for symbolic logic logic colloquium'93.Symbolic Logic - 1995 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 1 (4):489-490.
  4. Logic Colloquium '80 Papers Intended for the European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic.D. van Dalen, Daniel Lascar, T. J. Smiley & Association for Symbolic Logic - 1982
  5. Mathematical symbols as epistemic actions.Johan De Smedt & Helen De Cruz - 2013 - Synthese 190 (1):3-19.
    Recent experimental evidence from developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience indicates that humans are equipped with unlearned elementary mathematical skills. However, formal mathematics has properties that cannot be reduced to these elementary cognitive capacities. The question then arises how human beings cognitively deal with more advanced mathematical ideas. This paper draws on the extended mind thesis to suggest that mathematical symbols enable us to delegate some mathematical operations to the external environment. In this view, mathematical symbols are not only used to (...)
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  6. The Symbolic-Consequences Argument in the Sex Robot Debate.John Danaher - 2017 - In John Danaher & Neil McArthur (eds.), Robot Sex: Social and Ethical Implications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    This chapter examines a common objection to sex robots: the symbolic-consequences argument. According to this argument sex robots are problematic because they symbolise something disturbing about our attitude to sex-related norms such as consent and the status of our sex partners, and because of the potential consequences of this symbolism. After formalising this objection and considering several real-world uses of it, the chapter subjects it to critical scrutiny. It argues that while there are grounds for thinking that sex robots could (...)
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  7.  37
    Symbolic Logic.John Venn - 1881 - New York: B. Franklin.
    SYMBOLIC LOGIC. CHAPTER I. ON THE FORMS OF LOGICAL PROPOSITION. IT has been mentioned in the Introduction that the System of Logic which this work is ...
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  8.  30
    Elementary Symbolic Logic.William Gustason - 1973 - New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  9. Symbol grounding: A new look at an old idea.Ron Sun - 2000 - Philosophical Psychology 13 (2):149-172.
    Symbols should be grounded, as has been argued before. But we insist that they should be grounded not only in subsymbolic activities, but also in the interaction between the agent and the world. The point is that concepts are not formed in isolation (from the world), in abstraction, or "objectively." They are formed in relation to the experience of agents, through their perceptual/motor apparatuses, in their world and linked to their goals and actions. This paper takes a detailed look at (...)
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  10. Symbol Interdependency in Symbolic and Embodied Cognition.Max M. Louwerse - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (2):273-302.
    Whether computational algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA) can both extract meaning from language and advance theories of human cognition has become a topic of debate in cognitive science, whereby accounts of symbolic cognition and embodied cognition are often contrasted. Albeit for different reasons, in both accounts the importance of statistical regularities in linguistic surface structure tends to be underestimated. The current article gives an overview of the symbolic and embodied cognition accounts and shows how meaning induction attributed to (...)
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  11.  23
    Symbolic Logic.Peter Alexander - 1978 - Philosophical Quarterly 28 (113):348.
  12. Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction.Camilla K. Gilmore, Shannon E. McCarthy & Elizabeth S. Spelke - unknown
    Symbolic arithmetic is fundamental to science, technology and economics, but its acquisition by children typically requires years of effort, instruction and drill1,2. When adults perform mental arithmetic, they activate nonsymbolic, approximate number representations3,4, and their performance suffers if this nonsymbolic system is impaired5. Nonsymbolic number representations also allow adults, children, and even infants to add or subtract pairs of dot arrays and to compare the resulting sum or difference to a third array, provided that only approximate accuracy is required6–10. Here (...)
     
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  13. From symbols to knowledge systems: A. Newell and H. A. Simon's contribution to symbolic AI.Luis M. Augusto - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (1):29 - 62.
    A. Newell and H. A. Simon were two of the most influential scientists in the emerging field of artificial intelligence (AI) in the late 1950s through to the early 1990s. This paper reviews their crucial contribution to this field, namely to symbolic AI. This contribution was constituted mostly by their quest for the implementation of general intelligence and (commonsense) knowledge in artificial thinking or reasoning artifacts, a project they shared with many other scientists but that in their case was theoretically (...)
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  14. Active symbols and internal models: Towards a cognitive connectionism. [REVIEW]Stephen Kaplan, Mark Weaver & Robert French - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (1):51-71.
    In the first section of the article, we examine some recent criticisms of the connectionist enterprise: first, that connectionist models are fundamentally behaviorist in nature (and, therefore, non-cognitive), and second that connectionist models are fundamentally associationist in nature (and, therefore, cognitively weak). We argue that, for a limited class of connectionist models (feed-forward, pattern-associator models), the first criticism is unavoidable. With respect to the second criticism, we propose that connectionist modelsare fundamentally associationist but that this is appropriate for building models (...)
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  15.  27
    Symbolic Logic.Clarence Irving Lewis - 1932 - New York, NY, USA: Dover Publications.
  16.  82
    Symbolic Value.Andrew Sneddon - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (2):395-413.
    We are familiar with the idea of symbolic value in everyday contexts, and philosophers sometimes help themselves to it when discussing other topics. However, symbolic value itself has not been sufficiently studied. What is it for something to have symbolic value? How important is symbolic value? The present purpose is to shed some light on the nature and significance of symbolic value. Two kinds of symbolic value are distinguished, called the ‘symbolic mode of valuing’ and ‘symbolism as a ground of (...)
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  17. Perceptual symbol systems.Lawrence W. Barsalou - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):577-660.
    Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statis- tics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement record- ing systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the (...)
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  18.  52
    From symbols to icons: the return of resemblance in the cognitive neuroscience revolution.Daniel Williams & Lincoln Colling - 2018 - Synthese 195 (5):1941-1967.
    We argue that one important aspect of the “cognitive neuroscience revolution” identified by Boone and Piccinini :1509–1534. doi: 10.1007/s11229-015-0783-4, 2015) is a dramatic shift away from thinking of cognitive representations as arbitrary symbols towards thinking of them as icons that replicate structural characteristics of their targets. We argue that this shift has been driven both “from below” and “from above”—that is, from a greater appreciation of what mechanistic explanation of information-processing systems involves, and from a greater appreciation of the problems (...)
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  19.  24
    Biosymbols: Symbols in Life and Mind. [REVIEW]Liz Stillwaggon Swan & Louis J. Goldberg - 2010 - Biosemiotics 3 (1):17-31.
    The strong continuity thesis postulates that the properties of mind are an enriched version of the properties of life, and thus that life and mind differ in degree and not kind. A philosophical problem for this view is the ostensive discontinuity between humans and other animals in virtue of our use of symbols—particularly the presumption that the symbolic nature of human cognition bears no relation to the basic properties of life. In this paper, we make the case that a genuine (...)
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  20.  3
    Symbolic Logic.Lewis Carroll - 1896 - Macmillan ..
    The two works reprinted in this volume are a unique fusion of logical thought and inimitable whimsy. Written by the 19th-century mathematician who also gave us "Alive in Wonderland", they are among the most entertaining logical works ever written, and contain some of the most thought-provoking puzzles ever devised.
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  21. Symbols are not uniquely human.Sidarta Ribeiro, Angelo Loula, Ivan Araújo, Ricardo Gudwin & Joao Queiroz - 2006 - Biosystems 90 (1):263-272.
    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. (...)
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  22. The symbol grounding problem.Stevan Harnad - 1990 - Physica D 42:335-346.
    There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the symbol grounding problem : How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be made intrinsic to the system, rather than just parasitic on the meanings in our heads? How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of their shapes, be grounded (...)
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  23.  71
    Symbolic Logic: An Introduction.Frederic Brenton Fitch - 1952 - New York: Ronald Press Co..
  24. Symbol grounding in computational systems: A paradox of intentions.Vincent C. Müller - 2009 - Minds and Machines 19 (4):529-541.
    The paper presents a paradoxical feature of computational systems that suggests that computationalism cannot explain symbol grounding. If the mind is a digital computer, as computationalism claims, then it can be computing either over meaningful symbols or over meaningless symbols. If it is computing over meaningful symbols its functioning presupposes the existence of meaningful symbols in the system, i.e. it implies semantic nativism. If the mind is computing over meaningless symbols, no intentional cognitive processes are available prior to symbol grounding. (...)
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  25.  24
    Dicent Symbols in Non-Human Semiotic Processes.João Queiroz - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (3):319-329.
    Against the view that symbol-based semiosis is a human cognitive uniqueness, we have argued that non-human primates such as African vervet monkeys possess symbolic competence, as formally defined by Charles S. Peirce. Here I develop this argument by showing that the equivocal role ascribed to symbols by “folk semiotics” stems from an incomplete application of the Peircean logical framework for the classification of signs, which describes three kinds of symbols: rheme, dicent and argument. In an attempt to advance in the (...)
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  26.  68
    The symbolic order and the noosphere: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Jacques Lacan on technoscience and the future of the planet.Hub Zwart - 2022 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 1 (1):117-145.
    This paper presents a mutual confrontation of the oeuvres of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) and Jacques Lacan (1901–1980), highlighting their relevance for the planetary challenges we are facing today. I will present their views on technoscience, environmental pollution and religious faith, focussing on human genomics as a case study. Both authors claim that technoscience reflects a tendency towards symbolisation: incorporating the biosphere (liv- ing nature) into the “symbolic order’ (Lacan) or ‘noosphere’ (Teilhard). On various occasions, Lacan refers to Teilhard’s (...)
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  27.  16
    Symbols and Embodiment: Debates on Meaning and Cognition.Manuel de Vega, Arthur M. Glenberg & Arthur C. Graesser (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Cognitive scientists have a variety of approaches to studying cognition: experimental psychology, computer science, robotics, neuroscience, educational psychology, philosophy of mind, and psycholinguistics, to name but a few. In addition, they also differ in their approaches to cognition - some of them consider that the mind works basically like a computer, involving programs composed of abstract, amodal, and arbitrary symbols. Others claim that cognition is embodied - that is, symbols must be grounded on perceptual, motoric, and emotional experience. The existence (...)
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  28.  88
    The symbol and the theory of the life-world: “The transcendences of the life-world and their overcoming by signs and symbols”.Jochen Dreher - 2003 - Human Studies 26 (2):141-163.
    This essay presents a phenomenological analysis of the functioning of symbols as elements of the life-world with the purpose of demonstrating the interrelationship of individual and society. On the basis of Alfred Schutz''s theory of the life-world, signs and symbols are viewed as mechanisms by means of which the individual can overcome the transcendences posed by time, space, the world of the Other, and multiple realities which confront him or her. Accordingly, the individual''s life-world divides itself into the dimensions of (...)
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  29. Material symbols.Andy Clark - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):291-307.
    What is the relation between the material, conventional symbol structures that we encounter in the spoken and written word, and human thought? A common assumption, that structures a wide variety of otherwise competing views, is that the way in which these material, conventional symbol-structures do their work is by being translated into some kind of content-matching inner code. One alternative to this view is the tempting but thoroughly elusive idea that we somehow think in some natural language (such as English). (...)
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  30. Symbolic Logic.Richmond H. Thomason - 1970 - Macmillan.
  31.  37
    Symbols, Computation, and Intentionality: A Critique of the Computational Theory of Mind.Steven W. Horst - 1996 - University of California Press.
    In this carefully argued critique, Steven Horst pronounces the theory deficient.
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  32. Symbolic construction of reality: Scenography of the world.V. V. Ilin - 2013 - Liberal Arts in Russia 2 (6):531--551.
    The author draws attention to gnoseologically not enough investigated phenomenon of automorphism thinking. In the widely known works of F. Varela, and U. Maturana automorphism is associated mainly with the study of the adaptation of biological organisms. It appears, however, that the possibilities of this approach are more significant. The author believes that the driving force of thinking activity is the constructive combination. Cognitive morphogenesis processes as a free combination of symbolic forms, managed by rules of mental experimentation over one’s (...)
     
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  33. Symbols, Signals, and the Archaeological Record.Kim Sterelny & Peter Hiscock - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (1):1-3.
    The articles in this issue represent the pursuit of a new understanding of the human past, one that can replace the neo-saltationist view of a human revolution with models that can account for the complexities of the archaeological record and of human social lives. The articulation of archaeological, philosophical, and biological perspectives seems to offer a strong foundation for exploring available evidence, and this was the rationale for collecting these particular articles. Even at this preliminary stage there is a coherence (...)
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  34. Symbolic Logic and its Applications.Hugh MacColl - 1906 - London, England: Longmans, Green.
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  35.  76
    Processing symbolic information from a visual display: Interference from an irrelevant directional cue.John L. Craft & J. Richard Simon - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (3p1):415.
  36. Symbols and Computation A Critique of the Computational Theory of Mind.Steven Horst - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (3):347-381.
    Over the past several decades, the philosophical community has witnessed the emergence of an important new paradigm for understanding the mind.1 The paradigm is that of machine computation, and its influence has been felt not only in philosophy, but also in all of the empirical disciplines devoted to the study of cognition. Of the several strategies for applying the resources provided by computer and cognitive science to the philosophy of mind, the one that has gained the most attention from philosophers (...)
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  37.  10
    Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof.David W. Agler - 2012 - Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.
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  38. Symbolic Logic Study Guide (a textbook).Xinli Wang - 2009 - University Readers.
    The Symbolic Logic Study Guide is designed to accompany the widely used symbolic logic textbook Language, Proof and Logic (LPL), by Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy (CSLI Publications 2003). The guide has two parts. The first part contains condensed, essential lecture notes, which streamline and systematize the first fourteen chapters of the book into seven teaching sections, and thus provide a clear, well-designed roadmap for the understanding of the text. The second part consists of twelve sample quizzes and solutions. The (...)
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  39. Playing God: Symbolic Arguments Against Technology.Massimiliano Simons - 2022 - NanoEthics 16 (2):151-165.
    In ethical reflections on new technologies, a specific type of argument often pops up, which criticizes scientists for “playing God” with these new technological possibilities. The first part of this article is an examination of how these arguments have been interpreted in the literature. Subsequently, this article aims to reinterpret these arguments as symbolic arguments: they are grounded not so much in a set of ontological or empirical claims, but concern symbolic classificatory schemes that ground our value judgments in the (...)
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  40.  63
    Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Reasoning.Artur D'Avila Garcez, Luis Lamb & Dov Gabbay - 2009 - New York: Springer.
    Humans are often extraordinary at performing practical reasoning. There are cases where the human computer, slow as it is, is faster than any artificial intelligence system. Are we faster because of the way we perceive knowledge as opposed to the way we represent it? -/- The authors address this question by presenting neural network models that integrate the two most fundamental phenomena of cognition: our ability to learn from experience, and our ability to reason from what has been learned. This (...)
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  41.  53
    Symbolic Versus Associative Learning.John E. Hummel - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (6):958-965.
    Ramscar and colleagues (2010, this volume) describe the “feature-label-order” (FLO) effect on category learning and characterize it as a constraint on symbolic learning. I argue that FLO is neither a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of “learning elements of a symbol system” (instead, it is an effect on nonsymbolic, association learning) nor is it, more than any other constraint on category learning, a constraint on symbolic learning in the sense of “solving the symbol grounding problem.”.
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  42.  14
    Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving.Chin-Liang Chang - 1973 - New York, NY, USA: Academic Press.
    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4–9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.
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  43. Symbols in Wittgenstein's Tractatus.Colin Johnston - 2007 - European Journal of Philosophy 15 (3):367-394.
    This paper is concerned with the status of a symbol in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus. It is claimed in the first section that a Tractarian symbol, whilst essentially a syntactic entity to be distinguished from the mark or sound that is its sign, bears its semantic significance only inessentially. In the second and third sections I pursue this point of exegesis through the Tractarian discussions of nonsense and the context principle respectively. The final section of the paper places the forgoing work in (...)
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  44.  4
    The Symbol of the Mask.Julio Martín Alcántara Carrera - 2022 - Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History 3 (5):e21088.
    The Zapatista Indigenous Movement from Chiapas, Mexico is an example of the anthropological dynamics between the visible and the invisible in Western culture and the possible revolution of perceiving reality as such since they had to cover their faces with masks in their rebel anti-system movement in order to be considered as having the same dignity as other human beings: they performed a revolutionary act that changed the symbolic order of the visible by the public exhibition of their colonial submission. (...)
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  45. Perceptual symbols in language comprehension: Can an empirical case be made?Rolf A. Zwaan, Robert A. Stanfield & Carol J. Madden - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):636-637.
    Perceptual symbol systems form a theoretically plausible alternative to amodal symbol systems. At this point it is unclear whether there is any truly diagnostic empirical evidence to decide between these systems. We outline some possible avenues of research in the domain of language comprehension that might yield such evidence. Language comprehension will be an important arena for tests of the two types of symbol systems.
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  46.  46
    Symbols are Grounded not in Things, but in Scaffolded Relations and their Semiotic Constraints.Donald Favareau - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (2):235-255.
    As the accompanying articles in the Special Issue on Semiotic Scaffolding will attest, my colleagues in biosemiotics have done an exemplary job in showing us how to think about the critically generative role that semiotic scaffolding plays “vertically” – i.e., in evolutionary and developmental terms – by “allowing access to the upper floors” of biological complexity, cognition and evolution.In addition to such diachronic considerations of semiotic scaffolding, I wish to offer here a consideration of semiotic scaffolding’s synchronic power, as well (...)
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  47.  2
    Mythic-Symbolic Language and Philosophical Anthropology: A Constructive Interpretation of the Thought of Paul Ricœur.David M. Rasmussen - 1971 - The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    This book will attempt to achieve a constructive and positive correla tion between mythic-symbolic language and philosophical anthropolo gy. It is intended as a reflection on the philosophical accomplishment of Paul Ricoeur. The term mythic-symbolic language in this context means the language of the multivalent symbol given in the myth with its psychological and poetic counterparts. The term symbol is not con ceived as an abstract sign as it is used in symbolic logic, but rather as a concrete phenomenon - (...)
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  48.  1
    Symbolic Logic an Introduction.Richmond H. Thomason - 1969 - New York, NY, USA: Macmillan.
  49. Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applications.Rudolf Carnap - 1958 - New York: Dover Publications.
    Clear, comprehensive, intermediate introduction to logical languages, applications of symbolic logic to physics, mathematics, biology.
  50.  13
    Elementary Symbolic Logic: Concepts, Techniques, and Context.Kevin Morris - 2021 - Kendall Hunt.
    Elementary Symbolic Logic: Concepts, Techniques, and Context introduces symbolic logic in a way that is accessible and yet rigorous enough to provide an adequate foundation for students who intend to further pursue studies in logic, or who work in areas of study—for example, philosophy or linguistics—where a serious understanding of logic is nonnegotiable. Moreover, while it is not a history book, it aims to provide some context for the development of symbolic logic.
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