Results for 'models'

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  1. Concepts of Chaos-the Analysis of Self-Similarity and the Relevance of the Ethical Dimension-a Comment on Baker, Gregory, L. A'dualistic Model of Ultimate Reality and Meaning-Self-Similarity in Chaotic Dynamics and and Swedenborg'.Sm Modell - 1994 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 17 (4):310-315.
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  2. Reflections on DNA: The Contribution of Genetics to an Energy-Based Model of Ultimate Reality and Meaning.Stephen M. Modell - 2002 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 25 (4):274-294.
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  3. Models, Algebras, and Proofs Selected Papers of the X Latin American Symposium on Mathematical Logic Held in Bogotá.Xavier Caicedo & Carlos Montenegro - 1998 - Crc Press.
    "Contains a balanced account of recent advances in set theory, model theory, algebraic logic, and proof theory, originally presented at the Tenth Latin American Symposium on Mathematical Logic held in Bogata, Columbia. Traces new interactions among logic, mathematics, and computer science. Features original research from over 30 well-known experts worldwide.".
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  4. Matrix Models and Poetic Verses of the Human Mind.Matthew He - 2023 - New Jersey: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte..
    In this multidisciplinary book, mathematician Matthew He provides integrative perspectives of algebraic biology, cognitive informatics, and poetic expressions of the human mind. Using classical Pythagorean Theorem and contemporary Category Theory, the proposed matrix models of the human mind connect three domains of the physical space of objective matters, mental space of subjective meanings, and emotional space of bijective modes; draws the connections between neural sparks and idea points, between synapses and idea lines, and between action potentials and frequency curves.
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  5.  43
    Models and Modelling in the Sciences: A Philosophical Introduction.Stephen M. Downes - 2020 - Routledge.
    Biologists, climate scientists, and economists all rely on models to move their work forward. In this book, I explore the use of models in these and other fields to introduce readers to the various philosophical issues that arise in scientific modeling. I show that paying attention to models plays a crucial role in appraising scientific work. -/- After surveying a wide range of models from a number of different scientific disciplines, I demonstrate how focusing on (...) sheds light on many perennial issues in philosophy of science and in philosophy in general. For example, reviewing the range of views on how models represent their targets introduces readers to the key issues in debates on representation, not only in science but in the arts as well. Also, standard epistemological questions are cast in new and interesting ways when we confront the question, "What makes for a good (or bad) model?". (shrink)
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  6.  7
    Constructive Models.I͡Uriĭ Leonidovich Ershov - 2000 - Consultants Bureau.
    The theory of constructive (recursive) models follows from works of Froehlich, Shepherdson, Mal'tsev, Kuznetsov, Rabin, and Vaught in the 50s. Within the framework of this theory, algorithmic properties of abstract models are investigated by constructing representations on the set of natural numbers and studying relations between algorithmic and structural properties of these models. This book is a very readable exposition of the modern theory of constructive models and describes methods and approaches developed by representatives of the (...)
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  7.  22
    Philosophy and Model Theory.Sean Walsh & Tim Button - 2018 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Model theory is an important area of mathematical logic which has deep philosophical roots, many philosophical applications, and great philosophical interest in itself. The aim of this book is to introduce, organise, survey, and develop these connections between philosophy and model theory, for the benefit of philosophers and logicians alike.
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  8. Contemporary Models of Conversion and Identity Transformation.Pierre-Yves Brandt - 2022 - In Athanasios Despotis & Hermut Löhr (eds.), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions. Ancient Philosophy & Religion.
     
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  9. Models as Mediators: Perspectives on Natural and Social Science.Mary S. Morgan & Margaret Morrison (eds.) - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    Models as Mediators discusses the ways in which models function in modern science, particularly in the fields of physics and economics. Models play a variety of roles in the sciences: they are used in the development, exploration and application of theories and in measurement methods. They also provide instruments for using scientific concepts and principles to intervene in the world. The editors provide a framework which covers the construction and function of scientific models, and explore the (...)
     
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  10. Normative Formal Epistemology as Modelling.Joe Roussos - forthcoming - The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    I argue that normative formal epistemology (NFE) is best understood as modelling, in the sense that this is the reconstruction of its methodology on which NFE is doing best. I focus on Bayesianism and show that it has the characteristics of modelling. But modelling is a scientific enterprise, while NFE is normative. I thus develop an account of normative models on which they are idealised representations put to normative purposes. Normative assumptions, such as the transitivity of comparative credence, are (...)
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  11. Models as Make-Believe: Imagination, Fiction and Scientific Representation.Adam Toon - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Models as Make-Believe offers a new approach to scientific modelling by looking to an unlikely source of inspiration: the dolls and toy trucks of children's games of make-believe.
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  12. Classification Theory Proceedings of the U.S.-Israel Workshop on Model Theory in Mathematical Logic Held in Chicago, Dec. 15-19, 1985. [REVIEW]J. T. Baldwin & U. Workshop on Model Theory in Mathematical Logic - 1987
     
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  13.  6
    Model-Theoretic Logics.J. Barwise & S. Feferman - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book brings together several directions of work in model theory between the late 1950s and early 1980s.
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  14. Models, Analogies, and Theories.Peter Achinstein - 1964 - Philosophy of Science 31 (4):328-350.
    Recent accounts of scientific method suggest that a model, or analogy, for an axiomatized theory is another theory, or postulate set, with an identical calculus. The present paper examines five central theses underlying this position. In the light of examples from physical science it seems necessary to distinguish between models and analogies and to recognize the need for important revisions in the position under study, especially in claims involving an emphasis on logical structure and similarity in form between theory (...)
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  15. Model Anarchism.Walter Veit - 2020
    This paper constitutes a radical departure from the existing philosophical literature on models, modeling-practices, and model-based science. I argue that the various entities and practices called 'models' and 'modeling-practices' are too diverse, too context-sensitive, and serve too many scientific purposes and roles, as to allow for a general philosophical analysis. From this recognition an alternative view emerges that I shall dub model anarchism.
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  16.  3
    Models of Desire in Graeco-Arabic Philosophy: From Plotinus to Ibn Ṭufayl.Bethany Somma - 2021 - Boston: Brill.
    In this study, Bethany Somma argues for a dichotomous interpretation of human desire developed by late ancient Greek and medieval Islamic philosophers in response to an ambiguity in Aristotle’s account of desire.
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  17.  9
    Model Organisms.Rachel Ankeny & Sabina Leonelli - 2021 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element presents a philosophical exploration of the concept of the 'model organism' in contemporary biology. Thinking about model organisms enables us to examine how living organisms have been brought into the laboratory and used to gain a better understanding of biology, and to explore the research practices, commitments, and norms underlying this understanding. We contend that model organisms are key components of a distinctive way of doing research. We focus on what makes model organisms an important type of model, (...)
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  18. Which Models of Scientific Explanation Are (In)Compatible with IBE?Yunus Prasetya - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this article, I explore the compatibility of inference to the best explanation (IBE) with several influential models and accounts of scientific explanation. First, I explore the different conceptions of IBE and limit my discussion to two: the heuristic conception and the objective Bayesian conception. Next, I discuss five models of scientific explanation with regard to each model’s compatibility with IBE. I argue that Philip Kitcher’s unificationist account supports IBE; Peter Railton’s deductive-nomological-probabilistic model, Wesley Salmon’s statistical-relevance Model, and (...)
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  19. Models and World Making: Bodies, Buildings, Black Boxes.Annabel Jane Wharton - 2021 - London: University of Virginia Press.
    From climate change forecasts and pandemic maps to Lego sets and Ancestry algorithms, models encompass our world and our lives. In her thought-provoking new book, Annabel Wharton begins with a definition drawn from the quantitative sciences and the philosophy of science but holds that history and critical cultural theory are essential to a fuller understanding of modeling. Considering changes in the medical body model and the architectural model, from the Middle Ages to the twenty-first century, Wharton demonstrates the ways (...)
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  20.  6
    New Models of Religious Understanding.Fiona Ellis (ed.) - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    What does it mean to understand the world religiously? How is such understanding to be distinguished from scientific understanding? What does it have to do with religious practice, transfiguring love, and spiritual well-being? New Models of Religious Understanding investigates these questions to set a new and exciting agenda for philosophy of religion. Featuring contributions from leading scholars in the field, the volume cuts across the supposed divide between analytic and continental approaches to the subject and engages the interest of (...)
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  21. Models and Explanation.Alisa Bokulich - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Wayne Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. Springer. pp. 103-118.
    Detailed examinations of scientific practice have revealed that the use of idealized models in the sciences is pervasive. These models play a central role in not only the investigation and prediction of phenomena, but in their received scientific explanations as well. This has led philosophers of science to begin revising the traditional philosophical accounts of scientific explanation in order to make sense of this practice. These new model-based accounts of scientific explanation, however, raise a number of key questions: (...)
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  22. Models as Make-Believe.Adam Toon - 2010 - In Roman Frigg & Matthew Hunter (eds.), Beyond Mimesis and Convention: Representation in Art and Science. Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science.
    In this paper I propose an account of representation for scientific models based on Kendall Walton’s ‘make-believe’ theory of representation in art. I first set out the problem of scientific representation and respond to a recent argument due to Craig Callender and Jonathan Cohen, which aims to show that the problem may be easily dismissed. I then introduce my account of models as props in games of make-believe and show how it offers a solution to the problem. Finally, (...)
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  23. Causal Models and the Logic of Counterfactuals.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Causal models show promise as a foundation for the semantics of counterfactual sentences. However, current approaches face limitations compared to the alternative similarity theory: they only apply to a limited subset of counterfactuals and the connection to counterfactual logic is not straightforward. This paper addresses these difficulties using exogenous interventions, where causal interventions change the values of exogenous variables rather than structural equations. This model accommodates judgments about backtracking counterfactuals, extends to logically complex counterfactuals, and validates familiar principles of (...)
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  24. Models in Science.Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann - 2006 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford.
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The centrality of models such as the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, the double helix model of DNA, agent-based and evolutionary models in the social sciences, or general equilibrium models of markets in their respective domains (...)
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  25.  11
    Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science.Daniela M. Bailer-Jones - 2009 - University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Scientists have used models for hundreds of years as a means of describing phenomena and as a basis for further analogy. In _Scientific Models in Philosophy of Science, _Daniela Bailer-Jones assembles an original and comprehensive philosophical analysis of how models have been used and interpreted in both historical and contemporary contexts. Bailer-Jones delineates the many forms models can take, and how they are put to use. She examines early mechanical models employed by nineteenth-century physicists such (...)
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  26.  9
    Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values.Lorenzo Magnani & Nancy J. Nersessian (eds.) - 2002 - Boston, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
    There are several key ingredients common to the various forms of model-based reasoning considered in this book. The term ‘model’ comprises both internal and external representations. The models are intended as interpretations of target physical systems, processes, phenomena, or situations and are retrieved or constructed on the basis of potentially satisfying salient constraints of the target domain. The book’s contributors are researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology.
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  27. Models in the Geosciences.Alisa Bokulich & Naomi Oreskes - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Wayne Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. Springer. pp. 891-911.
    The geosciences include a wide spectrum of disciplines ranging from paleontology to climate science, and involve studies of a vast range of spatial and temporal scales, from the deep-time history of microbial life to the future of a system no less immense and complex than the entire Earth. Modeling is thus a central and indispensable tool across the geosciences. Here, we review both the history and current state of model-based inquiry in the geosciences. Research in these fields makes use of (...)
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  28.  25
    Unrealistic Models in Mathematics.William D'Alessandro - 2022 - Philosophers’ Imprint.
    Models are indispensable tools of scientific inquiry, and one of their main uses is to improve our understanding of the phenomena they represent. How do models accomplish this? And what does this tell us about the nature of understanding? While much recent work has aimed at answering these questions, philosophers' focus has been squarely on models in empirical science. I aim to show that pure mathematics also deserves a seat at the table. I begin by presenting two (...)
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  29.  39
    Models Without Indiscernibles.Fred G. Abramson & Leo A. Harrington - 1978 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 43 (3):572-600.
    For T any completion of Peano Arithmetic and for n any positive integer, there is a model of T of size $\beth_n$ with no (n + 1)-length sequence of indiscernibles. Hence the Hanf number for omitting types over T, H(T), is at least $\beth_\omega$ . (Now, using an upper bound previously obtained by Julia Knight H (true arithmetic) is exactly $\beth_\omega$ ). If T ≠ true arithmetic, then $H(T) = \beth_{\omega1}$ . If $\delta \not\rightarrow (\rho)^{ , then any completion of (...)
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  30. A Model of Heuristic Judgment.Daniel Kahneman & Shane Frederick - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267--293.
    The program of research now known as the heuristics and biases approach began with a study of the statistical intuitions of experts, who were found to be excessively confident in the replicability of results from small samples. The persistence of such systematic errors in the intuitions of experts implied that their intuitive judgments may be governed by fundamentally different processes than the slower, more deliberate computations they had been trained to execute. The ancient idea that cognitive processes can be partitioned (...)
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  31.  20
    Continuous Model Theory.Chen Chung Chang - 1966 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    CONTINUOUS MODEL THEORY CHAPTER I TOPOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES. Notation Throughout the monograph our mathematical notation does not differ drastically from ...
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  32. Model Organisms Are Not (Theoretical) Models.Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):327-348.
    Many biological investigations are organized around a small group of species, often referred to as ‘model organisms’, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The terms ‘model’ and ‘modelling’ also occur in biology in association with mathematical and mechanistic theorizing, as in the Lotka–Volterra model of predator-prey dynamics. What is the relation between theoretical models and model organisms? Are these models in the same sense? We offer an account on which the two practices are shown to have different (...)
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  33. Models of Man: A Phenomenological Critique of Some Paradigms in the Human Sciences.James J. Dagenais - 1972 - The Hague: M. Nijhoff.
    This essay is, first, a theoretical and historical study of some classical scientific ways of studying human being in the world. The more readily accessible and more commonly discussed "models" of being human were chosen for review here, but structuralism is included because I believe it will have ,the same impact in America as it has had in France, and I hope that American readers might be forewarned about what may be ideologically at stake before the technical, and fruitful, (...)
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  34.  1
    Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision.Jerome R. Busemeyer & Peter D. Bruza - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Much of our understanding of human thinking is based on probabilistic models. This innovative book by Jerome R. Busemeyer and Peter D. Bruza argues that, actually, the underlying mathematical structures from quantum theory provide a much better account of human thinking than traditional models. They introduce the foundations for modelling probabilistic-dynamic systems using two aspects of quantum theory. The first, 'contextuality', is a way to understand interference effects found with inferences and decisions under conditions of uncertainty. The second, (...)
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  35.  29
    Animal Models in Neuropsychiatry: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Moral Costs?Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):530-535.
    Animal models have long been used to investigate human mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. This practice is usually justified in terms of the benefits (to humans) outweighing the costs (to the animals). I argue on utility maximization grounds that we should phase out animal models in neuropsychiatric research. Our leading theories of how human minds and behavior evolved invoke sociocultural factors whose relation to nonhuman minds, societies, and behavior has not been homologized. Thus it is not (...)
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  36. From Models to Simulations.Franck Varenne - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book analyses the impact computerization has had on contemporary science and explains the origins, technical nature and epistemological consequences of the current decisive interplay between technology and science: an intertwining of formalism, computation, data acquisition, data and visualization and how these factors have led to the spread of simulation models since the 1950s. -/- Using historical, comparative and interpretative case studies from a range of disciplines, with a particular emphasis on the case of plant studies, the author shows (...)
  37.  75
    Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery.L. Magnani, Nancy Nersessian & Paul Thagard (eds.) - 1999 - Kluwer/Plenum.
    The book Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery, aims to explain how specific modeling practices employed by scientists are productive methods of ...
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  38. Models and Representation.Roman Frigg & James Nguyen - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. pp. 49-102.
    Scientific discourse is rife with passages that appear to be ordinary descriptions of systems of interest in a particular discipline. Equally, the pages of textbooks and journals are filled with discussions of the properties and the behavior of those systems. Students of mechanics investigate at length the dynamical properties of a system consisting of two or three spinning spheres with homogenous mass distributions gravitationally interacting only with each other. Population biologists study the evolution of one species procreating at a constant (...)
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  39.  11
    Incompatible Models in Chemistry: The Case of Electronegativity.Hernán Lucas Accorinti - 2019 - Foundations of Chemistry 21 (1):71-81.
    During the second half of the nineteenth century, electronegativity has been one of the most relevant chemical concepts to explain the relationships between chemical substances and their possible reactions. Specifically, EN is a property of the substances that allows them to attract external electrons in bonding situations. The problem arises because EN cannot be measured directly. Indeed, the only way to measure it is through different properties that do can be directly measured, for instance enthalpy, ionization energies or electron affinities. (...)
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  40.  38
    Models, Postulates, and Generalized Nomic Truth Approximation.Theo Kuipers - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    The qualitative theory of nomic truth approximation, presented in Kuipers in his, in which ‘the truth’ concerns the distinction between nomic, e.g. physical, possibilities and impossibilities, rests on a very restrictive assumption, viz. that theories always claim to characterize the boundary between nomic possibilities and impossibilities. Fully recognizing two different functions of theories, viz. excluding and representing, this paper drops this assumption by conceiving theories in development as tuples of postulates and models, where the postulates claim to exclude nomic (...)
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  41.  44
    Cognitive Models of Science.R. Giere & H. Feigl (eds.) - 1992 - University of Minnesota Press.
    Cognitive Models of Science resulted from a workshop on the implications of the cognitive sciences for the philosophy of science held in October 1989 under the ...
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  42.  5
    Model Theory and the Philosophy of Mathematical Practice: Formalization Without Foundationalism.John T. Baldwin - 2018 - Cambridge University Press.
    Major shifts in the field of model theory in the twentieth century have seen the development of new tools, methods, and motivations for mathematicians and philosophers. In this book, John T. Baldwin places the revolution in its historical context from the ancient Greeks to the last century, argues for local rather than global foundations for mathematics, and provides philosophical viewpoints on the importance of modern model theory for both understanding and undertaking mathematical practice. The volume also addresses the impact of (...)
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  43.  33
    Causal Models: How People Think About the World and its Alternatives.Steven Sloman - 2005 - Oxford, England: OUP.
    This book offers a discussion about how people think, talk, learn, and explain things in causal terms in terms of action and manipulation. Sloman also reviews the role of causality, causal models, and intervention in the basic human cognitive functions: decision making, reasoning, judgement, categorization, inductive inference, language, and learning.
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  44.  82
    Models in Science and in Learning Science: Focusing Scientific Practice on Sense-Making.Cynthia Passmore, Julia Svoboda Gouvea & Ronald Giere - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1171-1202.
    The central aim of science is to make sense of the world. To move forward as a community endeavor, sense-making must be systematic and focused. The question then is how do scientists actually experience the sense-making process? In this chapter we examine the “practice turn” in science studies and in particular how as a result of this turn scholars have come to realize that models are the “functional unit” of scientific thought and form the center of the reasoning/sense-making process. (...)
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  45. Laws, Models, and Theories in Biology: A Unifying Interpretation.Pablo Lorenzano - 2020 - In Lorenzo Baravalle & Luciana Zaterka (eds.), Life and Evolution, History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences. pp. 163-207.
    Three metascientific concepts that have been object of philosophical analysis are the concepts oflaw, model and theory. The aim ofthis article is to present the explication of these concepts, and of their relationships, made within the framework of Sneedean or Metatheoretical Structuralism (Balzer et al. 1987), and of their application to a case from the realm of biology: Population Dynamics. The analysis carried out will make it possible to support, contrary to what some philosophers of science in general and of (...)
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  46.  59
    Model Theory for Infinitary Logic: Logic with Countable Conjunctions and Finite Quantifiers.H. Jerome Keisler - 1971 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
    Provability, Computability and Reflection.
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  47. Chapter Six A Buddhist Model for the Informational Person.Ken Herold - 2007 - In Soraj Hongladarom (ed.), Computing and Philosophy in Asia. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 88.
    The paper explores a metaphysics of information enriched by a computational view of Buddhism consistent with onto-ethics. To the extent that Floridi has explained the new philosophy of information as borrowing methods from computer science to approach philosophical problems computationally, I believe an applied philosophy of information can return the fruits of these results back to grounding issues in the practices of information technology. With this process we also foster a cross-fertilization between Eastern and Western philosophies, in the larger, intercultural (...)
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  48. Theoretical Models.Peter Achinstein - 1965 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (62):102-120.
  49.  41
    Explanatory Models Versus Predictive Models: Reduced Complexity Modeling in Geomorphology.Alisa Bokulich - 2013 - In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 115--128.
    Although predictive power and explanatory insight are both desiderata of scientific models, these features are often in tension with each other and cannot be simultaneously maximized. In such situations, scientists may adopt what I term a ‘division of cognitive labor’ among models, using different models for the purposes of explanation and prediction, respectively, even for the exact same phenomenon being investigated. Adopting this strategy raises a number of issues, however, which have received inadequate philosophical attention. More specifically, (...)
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  50.  33
    Models and Analogies in Science.Mary B. Hesse - 1963 - University of Notre Dame Press.
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