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  1.  42
    Mapping the Ethical Issues of Brain Organoid Research and Application.Tsutomu Sawai, Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Takuya Niikawa, Joshua Shepherd, Elizabeth Thomas, Tsung-Ling Lee, Alexandre Erler, Momoko Watanabe & Hideya Sakaguchi - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 13 (2):81-94.
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  2. A Paradox for Tiny Probabilities and Enormous Values.Nick Beckstead & Teruji Thomas - forthcoming - Noûs.
    We begin by showing that every theory of the value of uncertain prospects must have one of three unpalatable properties. _Reckless_ theories recommend giving up a sure thing, no matter how good, for an arbitrarily tiny chance of enormous gain; _timid_ theories permit passing up an arbitrarily large potential gain to prevent a tiny increase in risk; _non-transitive_ theories deny the principle that, if A is better than B and B is better than C, then A must be better than (...)
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  3. On the desire to make a difference.Hilary Greaves, Andreas Mogensen, William MacAskill & Teruji Thomas - manuscript
    True benevolence is, most fundamentally, a desire that the world be better. It is natural and common, however, to frame thinking about benevolence indirectly, in terms of a desire to make a difference to how good the world is. This would be an innocuous shift if desires to make a difference were extensionally equivalent to desires that the world be better. This paper shows that at least on some common ways of making a “desire to make a difference” precise, this (...)
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  4. The Ethics of Germline Gene Editing.Gyngell Christopher, Douglas Thomas & Savulescu Julian - 2017 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 34 (4):498-513.
    Germline Gene Editing has enormous potential both as a research tool and a therapeutic intervention. While other types of gene editing are relatively uncontroversial, GGE has been strongly resisted. In this article, we analyse the ethical arguments for and against pursuing GGE by allowing and funding its development. We argue there is a strong case for pursuing GGE for the prevention of disease. We then examine objections that have been raised against pursuing GGE and argue that these fail. We conclude (...)
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  5.  22
    Republic of Equals: Predistribution and Property-Owning Democracy.Alan Thomas - 2016 - New York, US: Oxford University Press USA.
    The first book length study of property-owning democracy, Republic of Equals argues that a society in which capital is universally accessible to all citizens is uniquely placed to meet the demands of justice. Arguing from a basis in liberal-republican principles, this expanded conception of the economic structure of society contextualizes the market to make its transactions fair. The author shows that a property-owning democracy structures economic incentives such that the domination of one agent by another in the market is structurally (...)
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  6. Some Possibilities in Population Axiology.Teruji Thomas - 2018 - Mind 127 (507):807-832.
    It is notoriously difficult to find an intuitively satisfactory rule for evaluating populations based on the welfare of the people in them. Standard examples, like total utilitarianism, either entail the Repugnant Conclusion or in some other way contradict common intuitions about the relative value of populations. Several philosophers have presented formal arguments that seem to show that this happens of necessity: our core intuitions stand in contradiction. This paper assesses the state of play, focusing on the most powerful of these (...)
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  7.  13
    Neuroconstructivism - I: How the Brain Constructs Cognition.Denis Mareschal, Mark H. Johnson, Sylvain Sirois, Michael Spratling, Michael S. C. Thomas & Gert Westermann - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    What are the processes, from conception to adulthood, that enable a single cell to grow into a sentient adult? Neuroconstructivism is a pioneering 2 volume work that sets out a whole new framework for considering the complex topic of development, integrating data from cognitive studies, computational work, and neuroimaging.
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  8.  11
    Republic of Equals: Predistribution and Property-Owning Democracy.Alan Thomas - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    The first book-length study of property-owning democracy, Republic of Equals, argues that a society in which capital is universally accessible to all citizens is uniquely placed to meet the demands of justice. Arguing from a basis in liberal-republican principles, this expanded conception of the economic structure of society contextualizes the market to make its transactions fair. It shows that a property-owning democracy structures economic incentives such that the domination of one agent by another in the market is structurally impossible. The (...)
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  9. A History of Formal Logic.I. M. Bocheński & Ivo Thomas - 1961 - Science and Society 27 (4):492-494.
  10.  50
    Separability in Population Ethics.Teruji Thomas - 2022 - In Gustaf Arrhenius, Krister Bykvist, Tim Campbell & Elizabeth Finneron-Burns (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Population Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 271-295.
    Separability is roughly the principle that, in comparing the value of two outcomes, one can ignore any people whose existence and welfare are unaffected. Separability is both antecedently plausible, at least as a principle of beneficence, and surprisingly powerful; it is the key to some of the best positive arguments in population ethics. This chapter surveys the motivations for and consequences of separability. In particular, it presents an ‘additivity theorem’ which explains how separability leads to total utilitarianism and closely related (...)
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  11. Is Pain “All in your Mind”? Examining the General Public’s Views of Pain.Tim V. Salomons, Richard Harrison, Nat Hansen, James Stazicker, Astrid Grith Sorensen, Paula Thomas & Emma Borg - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 13 (3):683-698.
    By definition, pain is a sensory and emotional experience that is felt in a particular part of the body. The precise relationship between somatic events at the site where pain is experienced, and central processing giving rise to the mental experience of pain remains the subject of debate, but there is little disagreement in scholarly circles that both aspects of pain are critical to its experience. Recent experimental work, however, suggests a public view that is at odds with this conceptualisation. (...)
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  12.  9
    Bioethics Must Exemplify a Clear Path toward Justice: A Call to Action.Keisha Ray, Folasade C. Lapite, Shameka Poetry Thomas & Faith Fletcher - 2022 - American Journal of Bioethics 22 (1):14-16.
    Fabi and Goldberg raised important considerations regarding both research and funding priorities in the field of bioethics and, in particular, the field’s misalignment with social justice. W...
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  13.  31
    Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement.Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller & Kendall Thomas (eds.) - 1995 - New Press.
    Smoke and Mirrors is a passionate, richly nuanced work that shows television as a circus, a wishing well, and a cure for loneliness. Ranging from Ed Sullivan to cyberspace, from kid shows to cable, and from the cheap thrills of "action adventure" to the solemn boredom of PBS pledge week, Leonard argues for a whole new way of thinking about television. For Leonard, the situation comedy is a socializing agency, the talk show is a legitimating agency, the made-for-television movie is (...)
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  14. Are theories of imagery theories of imagination? An active perception approach to conscious mental content.Nigel J. T. Thomas - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (2):207-245.
    Can theories of mental imagery, conscious mental contents, developed within cognitive science throw light on the obscure (but culturally very significant) concept of imagination? Three extant views of mental imagery are considered: quasi‐pictorial, description, and perceptual activity theories. The first two face serious theoretical and empirical difficulties. The third is (for historically contingent reasons) little known, theoretically underdeveloped, and empirically untried, but has real explanatory potential. It rejects the “traditional” symbolic computational view of mental contents, but is compatible with recentsituated (...)
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  15.  84
    Rawls and political realism: Realistic utopianism or judgement in bad faith?Alan Thomas - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (3):304-324.
    Political realism criticises the putative abstraction, foundationalism and neglect of the agonistic dimension of political practice in the work of John Rawls. This paper argues that had Rawls not fully specified the implementation of his theory of justice in one particular form of political economy then he would be vulnerable to a realist critique. But he did present such an implementation: a property-owning democracy. An appreciation of Rawls s specificationist method undercuts the realist critique of his conception of justice as (...)
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  16.  65
    Are Spectrum Arguments Defused by Vagueness?Teruji Thomas - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 100 (4):743-757.
    ABSTRACT I consider paradoxical spectrum arguments involving transitive relations like ‘better than’. I argue that, despite being formally different from sorites arguments, at least some spectrum arguments arise from vagueness, and that vagueness might often be the most natural diagnosis.
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  17.  8
    Cerebellar Functions.Andre Thomas - 1913 - Philosophical Review 22 (4):440.
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  18.  30
    Friendship, Altruism, and Morality.Laurence Thomas - 1983 - Philosophical Review 92 (1):135.
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  19. The Formal Mechanics Of Mind.Stephen M. Thomas - 1978 - Ithaca, N.Y.: Harvester Press.
  20. The value of vague ideas in the development of the periodic system of chemical elements.Vogt Thomas - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10587-10614.
    The exploration of chemical periodicity over the past 250 years led to the development of the Periodic System of Elements and demonstrates the value of vague ideas that ignored early scientific anomalies and instead allowed for extended periods of normal science where new methodologies and concepts are developed. The basic chemical element provides this exploration with direction and explanation and has shown to be a central and historically adaptable concept for a theory of matter far from the reductionist frontier. This (...)
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  21.  27
    Pride, Shame and Guilt: Emotions of Self-Assessment.Laurence Thomas - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (4):585.
  22.  69
    Self domestication and the evolution of language.James Thomas & Simon Kirby - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (1-2):9.
    We set out an account of how self-domestication plays a crucial role in the evolution of language. In doing so, we focus on the growing body of work that treats language structure as emerging from the process of cultural transmission. We argue that a full recognition of the importance of cultural transmission fundamentally changes the kind of questions we should be asking regarding the biological basis of language structure. If we think of language structure as reflecting an accumulated set of (...)
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  23. Utilitarianism with and without expected utility.David McCarthy, Kalle Mikkola & Joaquin Teruji Thomas - 2020 - Journal of Mathematical Economics 87:77-113.
    We give two social aggregation theorems under conditions of risk, one for constant population cases, the other an extension to variable populations. Intra and interpersonal welfare comparisons are encoded in a single ‘individual preorder’. The theorems give axioms that uniquely determine a social preorder in terms of this individual preorder. The social preorders described by these theorems have features that may be considered characteristic of Harsanyi-style utilitarianism, such as indifference to ex ante and ex post equality. However, the theorems are (...)
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  24.  58
    Meaningfulness as Sensefulness.Joshua Lewis Thomas - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (5):1555-1577.
    It is only in the last few decades that analytic philosophers in particular have begun to pay any serious attention to the topic of life’s meaning. Such philosophers, however, do not usually attempt to answer or analyse the traditional question ‘What is the meaning of life?’, but rather the subtly different question ‘What makes a life meaningful?’ and it is generally assumed that the latter can be discussed independently of the former. Nevertheless, this paper will argue that the two questions (...)
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  25. Moral deference.Laurence Thomas - 1993 - Philosophical Forum 24 (1-3):232-250.
     
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  26.  11
    Trust Also Means Centering Black Women's Reproductive Health Narratives.Shameka Poetry Thomas - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (S1):18-21.
    Hastings Center Report, Volume 52, Issue S1, Page S18-S21, March‐April 2022.
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  27.  43
    After (post) hegemony.Peter D. Thomas - 2021 - Contemporary Political Theory 20 (2):318-340.
    Hegemony is one of the most widely diffused concepts in the contemporary social sciences and humanities internationally, interpreted in a variety of ways in different disciplinary and national contexts. However, its contemporary relevance and conceptual coherence has recently been challenged by various theories of ‘posthegemony’. This article offers a critical assessment of this theoretical initiative. In the first part of the article, I distinguish between three main versions of posthegemony – temporal, foundational and expansive – characterized by different understandings of (...)
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  28. The Roots of C. D. Broad’s Growing Block Theory of Time.Emily Thomas - 2019 - Mind 128 (510):527-549.
    The growing block view of time holds that the past and present are real whilst the future is unreal; as future events become present and real, they are added on to the growing block of reality. Surprisingly, given the recent interest in this view, there is very little literature on its origins. This paper explores those origins, and advances two theses. First, I show that although C. D. Broad’s Scientific Thought provides the first defence of the growing block theory, the (...)
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  29.  28
    The Concept of Representation.D. A. Lloyd Thomas - 1969 - Philosophical Quarterly 19 (75):186-187.
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  30.  42
    Anne Conway as a Priority Monist: A Reply to Gordon-Roth.Emily Thomas - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (3):275-284.
    For early modern metaphysician Anne Conway, the world comprises creatures. In some sense, Conway is a monist about creatures: all creatures are one. Yet, as Jessica Gordon-Roth has astutely pointed out, that monism can be understood in very different ways. One might read Conway as an ‘existence pluralist’: creatures are all composed of the same type of substance, but many substances exist. Alternatively, one might read Conway as an ‘existence monist’: there is only one created substance. Gordon-Roth has done the (...)
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  31.  54
    Value and context: the nature of moral and political knowledge.Alan Thomas - 2006 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Value and Context Alan Thomas articulates and defends the view that human beings do possess moral and political knowledge but it is historically and culturally contextual knowledge in ways that, say, mathematical or chemical knowledge is not. In his exposition of "cognitive contextualism" in ethics and politics he makes wide-ranging use of contemporary work in epistemology, moral philosophy, and political theory.
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  32. Mental imagery.Nigel J. T. Thomas - 2001 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Mental imagery (varieties of which are sometimes colloquially refered to as “visualizing,” “seeing in the mind's eye,” “hearing in the head,” “imagining the feel of,” etc.) is quasi-perceptual experience; it resembles perceptual experience, but occurs in the absence of the appropriate external stimuli. It is also generally understood to bear intentionality (i.e., mental images are always images of something or other), and thereby to function as a form of mental representation. Traditionally, visual mental imagery, the most discussed variety, was thought (...)
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  33. Man and the Natural World: A History of the Modern Sensibility.Keith Thomas - 1984 - Journal of Religious Ethics 12 (2):280-281.
     
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  34. Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent.Ari R. Joffe, Joe Carcillo, Natalie Anton, Allan deCaen, Yong Y. Han, Michael J. Bell, Frank A. Maffei, John Sullivan, James Thomas & Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:17.
    Many believe that the ethical problems of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) have been "worked out" and that it is unclear why DCD should be resisted. In this paper we will argue that DCD donors may not yet be dead, and therefore that organ donation during DCD may violate the dead donor rule. We first present a description of the process of DCD and the standard ethical rationale for the practice. We then present our concerns with DCD, including the following: (...)
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  35.  8
    What Can Cognitive Science Do for People?Richard W. Prather, Viridiana L. Benitez, Lauren Kendall Brooks, Christopher L. Dancy, Janean Dilworth-Bart, Natalia B. Dutra, M. Omar Faison, Megan Figueroa, LaTasha R. Holden, Cameron Johnson, Josh Medrano, Dana Miller-Cotto, Percival G. Matthews, Jennifer J. Manly & Ayanna K. Thomas - 2022 - Cognitive Science 46 (6):e13167.
    Cognitive Science, Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2022.
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  36. Complete chemical synthesis, assembly, and cloning of a mycoplasma genitalium genome.Daniel Gibson, Benders G., A. Gwynedd, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Evgeniya Denisova, Baden-Tillson A., Zaveri Holly, Stockwell Jayshree, B. Timothy, Anushka Brownley, David Thomas, Algire W., A. Mikkel, Chuck Merryman, Lei Young, Vladimir Noskov, Glass N., I. John, J. Craig Venter, Clyde Hutchison, Smith A. & O. Hamilton - 2008 - Science 319 (5867):1215--1220.
    We have synthesized a 582,970-base pair Mycoplasma genitalium genome. This synthetic genome, named M. genitalium JCVI-1.0, contains all the genes of wild-type M. genitalium G37 except MG408, which was disrupted by an antibiotic marker to block pathogenicity and to allow for selection. To identify the genome as synthetic, we inserted "watermarks" at intergenic sites known to tolerate transposon insertions. Overlapping "cassettes" of 5 to 7 kilobases (kb), assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, were joined by in vitro recombination to produce intermediate (...)
     
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  37. Friendship.Laurence Thomas - 1987 - Synthese 72 (2):217 - 236.
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  38. Topics in Population Ethics.Teruji Thomas - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    This thesis consists of several independent papers in population ethics. I begin in Chapter 1 by critiquing some well-known 'impossibility theorems', which purport to show there can be no intuitively satisfactory population axiology. I identify axiological vagueness as a promising way to escape or at least mitigate the effects of these theorems. In particular, in Chapter 2, I argue that certain of the impossibility theorems have little more dialectical force than sorites arguments do. From these negative arguments I move to (...)
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  39.  12
    Perhaps it was right to reject the resubmitted manuscripts.Garth J. Thomas - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (2):240-240.
  40.  55
    The Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility.Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & James L. Thomas - 2003 - Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):63-86.
    This study examined the effect of various antecedent variables on marketers’ perceptions of the role of ethics and socialresponsibility in the overall success of the firm. Variables examined included Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (i.e., power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, and Confucian dynamism), as well as corporate ethical values and enforcement ofan ethics code. Additionally, individual variables such as ethical idealism and relativism were included. Results indicated that most ofthese variables impacted marketers’ perceptions of the importance of ethics and social responsibility, (...)
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  41.  30
    Virtue in Medical Practice: An Exploratory Study.Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz & Hywel Thomas - 2017 - HEC Forum 29 (1):1-19.
    Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor—like kindness, fairness and good judgement—have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education (...)
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  42.  11
    Coding modality vs. input modality in hypermnesia: Is a rose a rose a rose?Matthew Hugh Erdelyi, Shira Finkelstein, Nadeanne Herrel, Bruce Miller & Jane Thomas - 1976 - Cognition 4 (4):311-319.
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  43.  3
    A History of Formal Logic.Joseph M. Bochenski & Ivo Thomas - 1970 - New York: Chelsea Publishing Company.
  44.  69
    Living morally: a psychology of moral character.Laurence Thomas - 1989 - Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    CHAPTER ONE Moral Character and Moral Theories Social interaction is the thread from which the fabric of moral character is woven.1 For it is social ...
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  45.  73
    Can Only Human Lives Be Meaningful?Joshua Lewis Thomas - 2018 - Philosophical Papers 47 (2):265-297.
    Duncan Purves and Nicolas Delon have argued that one’s life will be meaningful to the extent that one contributes to valuable states of affairs and this contribution is a result of one’s intentional actions. They then argue, contrary to some theorists’ intuitions, that non-human animals are capable of fulfilling these requirements, and that this finding might entail important things for the animal ethics movement. In this paper, I also argue that things besides human beings can have meaningful existences, but I (...)
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  46.  80
    Time, space, and process in Anne Conway.Emily Thomas - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 25 (5):990-1010.
    Many scholars have drawn attention to the way that elements of Anne Conway’s system anticipate ideas found in Leibniz. This paper explores the relationship between Conway and Leibniz’s work with regard to time, space, and process. It argues – against existing scholarship – that Conway is not a proto-Leibnizian relationist about time or space, and in fact her views lie much closer to those of Henry More; yet Conway and Leibniz agree on the primacy of process. This exploration advances our (...)
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  47.  14
    Absolute Time: Rifts in Early Modern British Metaphysics.Emily Thomas - 2018 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    What is time? This is one of the most fundamental questions we can ask. Emily Thomas explores how a new theory of time emerged in the seventeenth century. The 'absolute' theory of time held that it is independent of material bodies or human minds, so even if nothing else existed there would be time.
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  48.  13
    Relative numerousness judgments by squirrel monkeys.Roger K. Thomas & Laurie Chase - 1980 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (2):79-82.
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  49. Consciousness: Mapping the theoretical landscape.Anthony P. Atkinson, Michael S. C. Thomas & Axel Cleeremans - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (10):372-382.
    What makes us conscious? Many theories that attempt to answer this question have appeared recently in the context of widespread interest about consciousness in the cognitive neurosciences. Most of these proposals are formulated in terms of the information processing conducted by the brain. In this overview, we survey and contrast these models. We first delineate several notions of consciousness, addressing what it is that the various models are attempting to explain. Next, we describe a conceptual landscape that addresses how the (...)
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  50.  45
    A Philosophical Taxonomy of Ethically Significant Moral Distress: Figure 1.Tessy A. Thomas & Laurence B. McCullough - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):102-120.
    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one’s moral knowledge about what one (...)
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