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Joel Michael Reynolds
Georgetown University
Michaelis Michael
University of New South Wales
John Michael
Aarhus University
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  1.  82
    Towards Responsible Use of Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs by the Healthy.Henry Greely, Barbara Sahakian, John Harris, Ronald Kessler, Gazzaniga C., Campbell Michael, Farah Philip & J. Martha - 2008 - Nature 456:702-705.
  2. Joint Action Goals Reduce Visuomotor Interference Effects From a Partner’s Incongruent Actions.Sam Clarke, Luke McEllin, Anna Francová, Marcell Székely, Stephen Andrew Butterfill & John Michael - 2019 - Scientific Reports 9 (1).
    Joint actions often require agents to track others’ actions while planning and executing physically incongruent actions of their own. Previous research has indicated that this can lead to visuomotor interference effects when it occurs outside of joint action. How is this avoided or overcome in joint actions? We hypothesized that when joint action partners represent their actions as interrelated components of a plan to bring about a joint action goal, each partner’s movements need not be represented in relation to distinct, (...)
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  3.  45
    The Sense of Commitment: A Minimal Approach.John Michael, Natalie Sebanz & Günther Knoblich - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
  4.  33
    Moral Philosophy as Applied Science: A Darwinian Approach to the Foundations of Ethics.Ruse Michael & O. Wilson Edward - 1986 - Philosophy 61 (236):173-192.
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  5.  71
    The Interactive Turn in Social Cognition Research: A Critique.Søren Overgaard & John Michael - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (2):160-183.
    Proponents of the so-called “interactive turn in social cognition research” maintain that mainstream research on social cognition has been fundamentally flawed by its neglect of social interaction, and that a new paradigm is needed in order to redress this shortcoming. We argue that proponents of the interactive turn (“interactionists”) have failed to properly substantiate their criticisms of existing research on social cognition. Although it is sometimes unclear precisely what these criticisms of existing theories are supposed to target, we sketch two (...)
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  6. What is Apophaticism? Ways of Talking About an Ineffable God.Scott Michael & Citron Gabriel - 2016 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8 (4):23--49.
    Apophaticism -- the view that God is both indescribable and inconceivable -- is one of the great medieval traditions of philosophical thought about God, but it is largely overlooked by analytic philosophers of religion. This paper attempts to rehabilitate apophaticism as a serious philosophical option. We provide a clear formulation of the position, examine what could appropriately be said and thought about God if apophaticism is true, and consider ways to address the charge that apophaticism is self-defeating. In so doing (...)
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  7. Shared Emotions and Joint Action.John Michael - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (2):355-373.
    In recent years, several minimalist accounts of joint action have been offered (e.g. Tollefsen Philosophy of the Social Sciences 35:75–97, 2005; Sebanz et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(6): 234–1246, 2006; Vesper et al. Neural Networks 23 (8/9): 998–1003, 2010), which seek to address some of the shortcomings of classical accounts. Minimalist accounts seek to reduce the cognitive complexity demanded by classical accounts either by leaving out shared intentions or by characterizing them in a way that (...)
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  8. Why Desire Reasoning is Developmentally Prior to Belief Reasoning.Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen & John Michael - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (5):526-549.
    The predominant view in developmental psychology is that young children are able to reason with the concept of desire prior to being able to reason with the concept of belief. We propose an explanation of this phenomenon that focuses on the cognitive tasks that competence with the belief and desire concepts enable young children to perform. We show that cognitive tasks that are typically considered fundamental to our competence with the belief and desire concepts can be performed with the concept (...)
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  9.  72
    Interactionism and Mindreading.John Michael - 2011 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (3):559-578.
    In recent years, a number of theorists have developed approaches to social cognition that highlight the centrality of social interaction as opposed to mindreading (e.g. Gallagher and Zahavi 2008 ; Gallagher 2001 , 2007 , 2008 ; Hobson 2002 ; Reddy 2008 ; Hutto 2004 ; De Jaegher 2009 ; De Jaegher and Di Paolo 2007 ; Fuchs and De Jaegher 2009 ; De Jaegher et al. 2010 ). There are important differences among these approaches, as I will discuss, but (...)
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  10.  30
    Investing in Commitment: Persistence in a Joint Action is Enhanced by the Perception of a Partner’s Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2018 - Cognition 174:37-42.
    Can the perception that one’s partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a ‘finish’ button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be (...)
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  11.  38
    Investing in Commitment : Persistence in a Joint Action is Enhanced by the Perception of a Partner's Effort.Marcell Székely & John Michael - 2018 - Cognition 174:37-42.
    Can the perception that one’s partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a ‘finish’ button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be (...)
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  12. Towards a Consensus About the Role of Empathy in Interpersonal Understanding.John Michael - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):157-172.
    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy in the philosophy of mind, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience both about how to conceptualize empathy and about the connections between empathy and interpersonal understanding. Ideally, we would first establish a consensus about how to conceptualize empathy, and then analyze the potential contribution of empathy to interpersonal understanding. However, it is not at all clear that such a consensus will soon be forthcoming, given that different people have fundamentally conflicting (...)
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  13.  15
    Biological Species: Natural Kinds, Individuals, or What?,„.Ruse Michael - 1987 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (2):225-242.
    What are biological species? Aristotelians and Lockeans agree that they are natural kinds; but, evolutionary theory shows that neither traditional philosophical approach is truly adequate. Recently, Michael Ghiselin and David Hull have argued that species are individuals. This claim is shown to be against the spirit of much modern biology. It is concluded that species are natural kinds of a sort, and that any 'objectivity' they possess comes from their being at the focus of a consilience of inductions.
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  14. Beyond Avatars and Arrows: Testing the Mentalizing and Submentalizing Hypotheses with a Novel Entity Paradigm.Evan Westra, Brandon F. Terrizzi, Simon T. van Baal, Jonathan S. Beier & John Michael - forthcoming - Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.
    In recent years, there has been a heated debate about how to interpret findings that seem to show that humans rapidly and automatically calculate the visual perspectives of others. In the current study, we investigated the question of whether automatic interference effects found in the dot-perspective task (Samson, Apperly, Braithwaite, Andrews, & Bodley Scott, 2010) are the product of domain-specific perspective-taking processes or of domain-general “submentalizing” processes (Heyes, 2014). Previous attempts to address this question have done so by implementing inanimate (...)
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  15. Passion and Politics.Walzer Michael - 2002 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 28 (6):617-633.
    Passion is a hidden issue behind or at the heart of, contemporary theoretical debates about nationalism, identity politics and religious fundamentalism. It is not that reason and passion cannot be conceptually distinguished. They are, however, always entangled in practice - and this entanglement itself requires a conceptual account. So it is my ambition to blur the line between reason and passion: to rationalize (some of) the passions and to impassion reason. Passionate intensity has a legitimate place in the social world. (...)
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  16.  42
    How Direct is Social Perception?John Michael & Leon De Bruin - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:373-375.
  17.  19
    The Developmental Origins of Commitment.John Michael & Marcell Székely - 2018 - Journal of Social Philosophy 49 (1):106-123.
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  18.  30
    Observing Joint Action: Coordination Creates Commitment.John Michael, Natalie Sebanz & Günther Knoblich - 2016 - Cognition 157:106-113.
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  19.  93
    Mindreading as Social Expertise.John Michael, Wayne Christensen & Søren Overgaard - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-24.
    In recent years, a number of approaches to social cognition research have emerged that highlight the importance of embodied interaction for social cognition (Reddy, How infants know minds, 2008; Gallagher, J Conscious Stud 8:83–108, 2001; Fuchs and Jaegher, Phenom Cogn Sci 8:465–486, 2009; Hutto, in Seemans (ed.) Joint attention: new developments in psychology, philosophy of mind and social neuroscience, 2012). Proponents of such ‘interactionist’ approaches emphasize the importance of embodied responses that are engaged in online social interaction, and which, according (...)
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  20.  34
    On Commitments and Other Uncertainty Reduction Tools in Joint Action.John Michael & Elisabeth Pacherie - 2015 - Journal of Social Ontology 1 (1):89–120.
    In this paper, we evaluate the proposal that a central function of commitments within joint action is to reduce various kinds of uncertainty, and that this accounts for the prevalence of commitments in joint action. While this idea is prima facie attractive, we argue that it faces two serious problems. First, commitments can only reduce uncertainty if they are credible, and accounting for the credibility of commitments proves not to be straightforward. Second, there are many other ways in which uncertainty (...)
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  21.  34
    “The Group Knobe Effect”: Evidence That People Intuitively Attribute Agency and Responsibility to Groups.John Andrew Michael & András Szigeti - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (1):44-61.
    In the current paper, we present and discuss a series of experiments in which we investigated people’s willingness to ascribe intentions, as well as blame and praise, to groups. The experiments draw upon the so-called “Knobe Effect”. Knobe [2003. “Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language.” Analysis 63: 190–194] found that the positiveness or negativeness of side-effects of actions influences people’s assessment of whether those side-effects were brought about intentionally, and also that people are more willing to assign blame (...)
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  22. Compatibilist Semantics in Metaphysics: A Case Study.John O'Leary-Hawthorne & Michaelis Michael - 1996 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (1):117 – 134.
    (1996). Compatibilist semantics in metaphysics: A case study. Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 117-134. doi: 10.1080/00048409612347101.
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  23. Implicit Ontological Commitment.Michaelis Michael - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 141 (1):43 - 61.
    Quine’s general approach is to treat ontology as a matter of what a theory says there is. This turns ontology into a question of which existential statements are consequences of that theory. This approach is contrasted favourably with the view that takes ontological commitment as a relation to things. However within the broadly Quinean approach we can distinguish different accounts, differing as to the nature of the consequence relation best suited for determining those consequences. It is suggested that Quine’s own (...)
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  24.  1
    1. Really Statistical Explanations and Genetic Drift Really Statistical Explanations and Genetic Drift (Pp. 169-188).Marc Lange, Peter Vickers, John Michael, Miles MacLeod, Alexander R. Pruss, David John Baker, Clark Glymour & Simon Fitzpatrick - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (2):169-188.
    Really statistical explanation is a hitherto neglected form of noncausal scientific explanation. Explanations in population biology that appeal to drift are RS explanations. An RS explanation supplies a kind of understanding that a causal explanation of the same result cannot supply. Roughly speaking, an RS explanation shows the result to be mere statistical fallout.
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  25.  38
    On a “Most Telling” Argument for Paraconsistent Logic.Michaelis Michael - 2016 - Synthese 193 (10).
    Priest and others have presented their “most telling” argument for paraconsistent logic: that only paraconsistent logics allow non-trivial inconsistent theories. This is a very prevalent argument; occurring as it does in the work of many relevant and more generally paraconsistent logicians. However this argument can be shown to be unsuccessful. There is a crucial ambiguity in the notion of non-triviality. Disambiguated the most telling reason for paraconsistent logics is either question-begging or mistaken. This highlights an important confusion about the role (...)
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  26.  14
    Goal Slippage: A Mechanism for Spontaneous Instrumental Helping in Infancy?John Michael & Marcell Székely - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):173-183.
    In recent years, developmental psychologists have increasingly been interested in various forms of prosocial behavior observed in infants and young children—in particular comforting, sharing, pointing to provide information, and spontaneous instrumental helping. We briefly review several models that have been proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms underpinning these behaviors. Focusing on spontaneous instrumental helping, we home in on models based upon what Paulus :77–81, 2014) has dubbed ‘goal-alignment’, i.e. the idea that the identification of an agent’s goal leads infants to (...)
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  27. Business Ethics: The Law of Rules.Michael L. Michael - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):475-504.
    Abstract: Despite the recent rash of corporate scandals and the resulting rush to address the problem by adding more laws and regulations, seemingly little attention has been paid to how the nature (not the substance) of rules may or may not affect ethical decision-making. Drawing on work in law, ethics, management, psychology, and other social sciences, this article explores how several characteristics of rules may interfere with the process of reaching and implementing ethical decisions. Such a relationship would have practical (...)
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  28. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möebius Syndrome.John Michael, Kathleen Bogart, Kristian Tylen, Joel Krueger, Morten Bech, John R. Ostergaard & Riccardo Fusaroli - 2015 - Frontiers in Neurology 6 (213):1-11.
    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with (...)
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  29. The Romantic Conception of Robert J. Richards.Ruse Michael - 2004 - Journal of the History of Biology 37 (1):3 - 23.
    In his new book, "The Romantic Conception of Life: Science and Philosophy in the Age of Goethe," Robert J. Richards argues that Charles Darwin's true evolutionary roots lie in the German Romantic biology that flourished around the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is argued that Richards is quite wrong in this claim and that Darwin's roots are in the British society within which he was born, educated, and lived.
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  30.  23
    What Are Shared Emotions ?John Michael - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  31.  24
    Core Intuitions About Persons Coexist and Interfere With Acquired Christian Beliefs About God.Barlev Michael, Mermelstein Spencer & C. German Tamsin - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent or inconsistent. Participants were less accurate and slower to respond to inconsistent versus consistent (...)
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  32.  19
    Shared Intention.E. Bratman Michael - 1994 - In Peter Singer (ed.), Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 104.
  33.  44
    Prediction Error Minimization as a Framework for Social Cognition Research.Leon de Bruin & John Michael - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (1):1-20.
    The main aim of this article is to give an assessment of prediction error minimization as a unifying theoretical framework for the study of social cognition. We show how this framework can be used to synthesize and systematically relate existing data from social cognition research, and explain how it introduces new constraints for further research. We discuss PEM in relation to other theoretical frameworks of social cognition, and identify the main challenges that this approach to social cognition will need to (...)
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  34.  16
    Flexible Goal Attribution in Early Mindreading.John Michael & Wayne Christensen - 2016 - Psychological Review 123 (2):219-227.
  35.  12
    Stopping at Nothing : Two-Year-Olds Differentiate Between Interrupted and Abandoned Goals.Alexander Green, Barbora Siposova, Sotaro Kita & John Michael - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.
    Previous research has established that goal tracking emerges early in the first year of life and rapidly becomes increasingly sophisticated. However, it has not yet been shown whether young children continue to update their representations of others’ goals over time. The current study investigates this by probing young children’s ability to differentiate between goal directed actions that have been halted because the goal was interrupted, and because the goal was abandoned. To test whether children are sensitive to this distinction, we (...)
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  36.  42
    Defining Dignity and Its Place in Human Rights.Lucy Michael - 2014 - The New Bioethics 20 (1):12-34.
    The concept of dignity is widely used in society, particularly in reference to human rights law and bioethics. Several conceptions of dignity are identified, falling broadly within two categories: full inherent dignity (FID) and non- inherent dignity (NID). FID is a quality belonging equally to every being with full moral status, including all members of the human natural kind; it is permanent, unconditional, indivisible and inviolable. Those beings with FID ought to be treated deferentially by others by virtue of their (...)
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  37.  13
    Presence of a Dog Reduces Subjective but Not Physiological Stress Responses to an Analog Trauma.Johanna Lass-Hennemann, Peter Peyk, Markus Streb, Elena Holz & Tanja Michael - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  38.  68
    Daniel Sennert On Matter and Form: At the Juncture of the Old and the New1.Emily Michael - 1997 - Early Science and Medicine 2 (3):272-299.
    Daniel Sennert , a prominent physician and a prolific and influential writer, was both an atomist and an Aristotelian. He was influenced by a distinctive and now little known Aristotelian approach to matter and form, and this promoted his development over time of a hierarchical account of atoms, with elementary atoms and grades of molecules. The first section provides a study of Sennert's Aristotelian foundation. The final two sections consider, in turn, Sennert's development over time of an atomistic theory, and (...)
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  39. Time Travel for Endurantists.Markos Valaris & Michaelis Michael - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (4):357-364.
    Famously, David Lewis argued that we can avoid the apparent paradoxes of time travel by introducing a notion of personal time, which by and large follows the causal flow of the time traveler's life history. This paper argues that a related approach can be adapted for use by three-dimensionalists in response to Ted Sider's claim that three-dimensionalism is inconsistent with time travel. In contrast to Lewis (and others who follow him on this point), however, this paper argues that the order (...)
     
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  40.  58
    In Search of the Uniquely Human.Tomasello Michael, Carpenter Malinda, Call Josep, Behne Tanya & Moll Henrike - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):721-727.
    As Bruner so eloquently points out, and Gauvain echoes, human beings are unique in their “locality.” Individual groups of humans develop their own unique ways of symbolizing and doing things – and these can be very different from the ways of other groups, even those living quite nearby. Our attempt in the target article was to propose a theory of the social-cognitive and social-motivational bases of humans' ability and propensity to live in this local, that is, this cultural, way – (...)
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  41. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicine Through Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge.Daniel L. Rubin, Suzanna E. Lewis, Chris J. Mungall, Misra Sima, Westerfield Monte, Ashburner Michael, Christopher G. Chute, Ida Sim, Harold Solbrig, M. A. Storey, Barry Smith, John D. Richter, Natasha Noy & Mark A. Musen - 2006 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 10 (2):185-198.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create (...)
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  42.  15
    Is Nonanthropocentrism Anti-Democratic?Mark Alan Michael - 2020 - Environmental Values 29 (1):9-28.
    Environmental pragmatists such as Ben Minteer and Bryan Norton have argued that there is an anti-democratic strain to be found in the work of some nonanthropocentrists. I examine three possible sources of the pragmatists' concern: the claim that nonanthropocentrists know the political truth, the claim that those who disagree with their basic principle should be excluded from discussions of policy and the claim that their basic principle is self-evident. I argue here that none of these claims are objectionably anti-democratic when (...)
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  43.  9
    Kripke Models for Linear Logic.Allwein Gerard & Dunn J. Michael - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (2):514-545.
  44.  75
    Integration, Individuality and Species Concepts.Lee Michael & Wolsan Mieczyslaw - 2002 - Biology and Philosophy 17 (5):651-660.
    Integration (interaction among parts of an entity) is suggested to be necessary for individuality (contra, Metaphysics and the Origin of Species). A synchronic species is an integrated individual that can evolve as a unified whole; a diachronic lineage is a non-integrated historical entity that cannot evolve. Synchronic species and diachronic lineages are consequently suggested to be ontologically distinct entities, rather than alternative perspectives of the same underlying entity (contra Baum (1998), Syst. Biol. 47, 641–653; de Queiroz (1995), Endless Forms: Species (...)
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  45. Roadkill: Between Humans, Nonhuman Animals, and Technologies.Mike Michael - 2004 - Society and Animals 12 (4):277-298.
    This paper has two broad objectives. First, the paper aims to treat roadkill as a topic of serious social scientific inquiry by addressing it as a cultural artifact through which various identities are played out. Thus, the paper shows how the idea of roadkill-as-food mediates contradictions and ironies in American identities concerned with hunting, technology, and relationships to nature. At a second, more abstract, level, the paper deploys the example of roadkill to suggest a par ticular approach to theorizing broader (...)
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  46. Gradability and Knowledge.Blome-Tillmann Michael - 2017 - In Jonathan Ichikawa (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. London: Routledge. pp. 348--357.
    Epistemic contextualism (‘EC’), the view that the truth-values of knowledge attributions may vary with the context of ascription, has a variety of different linguistic implementations. On one of the implementations most popular in the early days of EC, the predicate ‘knows p’ functions semantically similarly to gradable adjectives such as ‘flat’, ‘tall’, or ‘empty’. In recent work Jason Stanley and John Hawthorne have presented powerful arguments against such implementations of EC. In this article I briefly systematize the contextualist analogy to (...)
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  47. “What Are We Busy Doing?”: Engaging the Idiot.Mike Michael - 2012 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 37 (5):528-554.
    Engagement events—whether interviews, installations, or participatory encounters—can entail a range of happenings which, in one way or another, “overspill” the empirical, analytic, or political framing of those engagement events. This article looks at how we might attend to these overspills—for instance, forms of “misbehavior” on the part of lay participants—not only to provide accounts of them but also to explore ways of deploying them creatively. In particular, Stengers’ figure of the “idiot” is proposed as a device for deploying those overspills (...)
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  48. Renaissance Theories of Body, Soul, and Mind.Emily Michael - 2002 - In J. N. Wright & P. Potter (eds.), Psyche and Soma. Oxford University Press.
     
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  49.  56
    Information and Veridicality: Information Processing and the Bar-Hillel/Carnap Paradox.Nir Fresco & Michaelis Michael - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):131-151.
    Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information posits the Veridicality Thesis. One motivation is that it can serve as a foundation for information-based epistemology being an alternative to the tripartite theory of knowledge. However, the Veridicality thesis is false, if ‘information’ is to play an explanatory role in human cognition. Another motivation is avoiding the so-called Bar-Hillel/Carnap paradox. But this paradox only seems paradoxical, if ‘information’ and ‘informativeness’ are synonymous, logic is a theory of inference, or validity suffices for rational inference; (...)
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  50.  19
    Thinking (About) Groups: A Special Issue of Synthese.Alessandro Salice, John Michael & András Szigeti - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):4809-4812.
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