Order:
Disambiguations
Patrik Baard [20] Baard [1]Rachel Baard [1]Paul P. Baard [1]
See also
Patrik Baard
University of Oslo
  1.  16
    The Goodness of Means: Instrumental and Relational Values, Causation, and Environmental Policies.Patrik Baard - 2019 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 32 (1):183-199.
    Instrumental values are often considered to be inferior to intrinsic values. One reason for this is that instrumental values are extrinsic and rely on two factors: a means–end relationship that is conducive to something of final or intrinsic value. In this paper, I will investigate the conditions under which bearers of instrumental value are given different value or owed different levels of respect. Such conditions include the number of means that are conducive to something of final or intrinsic value as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  2.  36
    Biocentric Individualism and Biodiversity Conservation: An Argument From Parsimony.Patrik Baard - 2021 - Environmental Values 30 (1):93-110.
    This article argues that holistic ecocentrism unnecessarily introduces elements to explain why we ought to halt biodiversity loss. I suggest that atomistic accounts can justify the same conclusion by utilising fewer elements. Hence, why we ought to preserve biodiversity can be made reasonable without adding elements such as intrinsic values of ecosystems or moral obligations to conserve collectives of organisms. Between two equally good explanations of the same phenomenon, the explanation utilising fewer elements, which speaks in favour of atomistic accounts, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3.  80
    Managing Climate Change: A View From Deep Ecology. Baard - 2015 - Ethics and the Environment 20 (1):23-44.
    Despite the awareness that climate change is an increasingly urgent issue to manage, little is being done to adequately achieve mitigation targets and ambitions. It has been suggested that this is due to ill-equipped normative frameworks and that common concepts, such as responsibility, harm, and justice, collapse when applied to climate change. One perspective has however been missing from this debate – the deep ecological perspective. The paper will investigate the deep ecological view and will argue that it can provide (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  4.  16
    Risk-Reducing Goals: Ideals and Abilities When Managing Complex Environmental Risks.Patrik Baard - 2016 - Journal of Risk Research 19 (2):164-180.
    Social decision-making involving risks ideally results in obligations to avoid expected harms or keep them within acceptable limits. Ambitious goals aimed at avoiding or greatly reducing risks might not be feasible, forcing the acceptance of higher degrees of risk (i.e. unrealistic levels of risk reduction are revised to comport with beliefs regarding abilities). In this paper, the philosophical princi- ple ‘ought implies can’ is applied to the management of complex risks, exempli- fied by the risks associated with climate change. In (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  5.  9
    Do We Have a Residual Obligation to Engineer the Climate, as a Matter of Justice?Patrik Baard & Per Wikman-Svahn - 2016 - In Christopher J. Preston (ed.), Climate Justice and Geoengineering: Ethics and Policy in the Atmospheric Anthropocene. London, Storbritannien:
    This article investigates whether geoengineering can be justified as a residual obligation given that demands related to mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases are left unfulfilled due to conflicting with other demands. Ultimately, it is found that geoengineering cannot be justified due to, amongst other reasons, risks.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  6.  40
    Cautious Utopias: Environmental Goal-Setting with Long Time Frames.Patrik Baard & Karin Edvardsson Björnberg - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (2):187-201.
    Sustainable development is a common goal in the public sector but may be difficult to implement due to epistemic uncertainties and the long time frames required. This paper proposes that some of these problems can be solved by formulating cautious utopias, entailing a relationship between means and goals differing from both utopian and realistic goal-setting. Cautiously utopian goals are believed, but not certain, to be achievable and to remain desirable, but are open to future adjustments due to changing desires and/or (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  7.  29
    Fundamental Challenges for Rights of Nature.Patrik Baard - 2021 - In Daniel Corrigan & Markku Oksanen (eds.), Rights of nature: A re-examination. London and New York: Routledge.
    In recent years many actors have investigated the possibilities of strengthening legal environmental protection by making appeals to the rights of nature. Such rights have also been legally encoded in some countries. This paper will critically investigate whether it is reasonable to ascribe moral or legal rights to nature. With support from moral and legal philosophy, different propositions in support of rights of nature will be tested to see if reasonable responses can be formulated against objections. If not, the position (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Mill, miljö och hållbarhet.Patrik Baard - 2011 - Tidskrift För Politisk Filosofi 15 (3):29-36.
    This article (in Swedish) situates John Stuart Mill's normative discussion on 'stationary state' in contemporary sustainability categories.
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  9.  10
    Knowledge, Participation, and the Future: Epistemic Quality in Energy Scenario Construction.Patrik Baard - 2021 - Energy Research and Social Science 75.
    Constructing energy scenarios is traditionally an endeavour driven by experts. I suggest that an outcome of relying solely on expertise is incompleteness. Moreover, expertise, while being a necessary condition, is not a sufficient condition for epistemic quality and normative legitimacy of energy scenarios given the scope of transitions that energy scenarios entail, which includes substantial societal repercussions. Four reasons will be provided for wide participation when constructing energy scenarios. First, there are several forecasting shortcomings of top-down approaches. Second, to rely (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  51
    Change of Plans?Patrik Baard - 2015 - Environmental Philosophy 12 (2):185-204.
    Sustainable ecosystem management often requires setting goals despite uncertainty regarding the achievability and desirability of the intended state of affairs. Coming to doubt the achievability or desirability of a previously set goal might sometimes, but not always, require reconsidering that goal. There is, however, a need to strike a balance between responsiveness to new information and knowing when to retain goals despite doubts. By critically engaging with adaptive ecosystem management, as advocated by environmental pragmatist Bryan G. Norton, criteria for warranted (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  49
    Adaptive Ideals and Aspirational Goals: The Utopian Ideals and Realist Constraints of Climate Change Adaptation.Patrik Baard - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (4):739-757.
    There is a growing need to implement anticipatory climate change adaptation measures, particularly in vulnerable sectors, such as in agriculture. However, setting goals to adapt is wrought with several challenges. This paper discusses two sets of challenges to goals of anticipatory adaptation, of empirical and normative character. The first set of challenges concern issues such as the extent to which the climate will change, the local impacts of such changes, and available adaptive responses. In the second set of uncertainties are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  16
    Conflicting Advice: Resolving Conflicting Moral Recommendations in Climate and Environmental Ethics.Patrik Baard - 2020 - In Brian Henning & Zack Walsh (eds.), Climate Change Ethics and the Non-Human World. New York, USA:
    Climate ethics and environmental ethics sometimes provide conflicting action guidance. For instance, favored climate policies to avoid global mean increases beyond 1.5-2 °C may have detrimental effects on biodiversity by requiring transforming environmental areas into croplands for bioenergy and for negative emission technologies. From this follows a potential moral conflict between the demands of climate ethics, according to which transforming natural ecosystems to cropland for bioenergy is permissible and perhaps even obligatory if it reduces risks of climate change, and the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  15
    Ethics in Conservation.Patrik Baard & Marko Ahteensuu - 2019 - Journal for Nature Conservation 52.
    During recent years the relevance of environmental ethics to nature conservation has been increasingly questioned. This doubt mainly takes two forms: (1) Conservation biology is regarded as solely a scientific endeavor, and therefore ethics is redundant; (2) It is acknowledged that values are part and parcel of conservation science, practice and policy, but environmental ethics is considered to have little positive contribution to make. We focus on the latter form and argue that it enables only suppressed normative premises omitted from (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  23
    Ethics in Biodiversity Conservation.Patrik Baard - 2022 - London and New York: Routledge.
    This book examines the role of ethics and philosophy in biodiversity conservation. The objective of this book is two-fold: on the one hand it offers a detailed and systematic account of central normative concepts often used, but rarely explicated nor justified, within conservation biology. Such concepts include 'values', 'rights', and 'duties'. The second objective is to emphasize to environmental philosophers and applied ethicists the many interesting decision-making challenges of biodiversity conservation. The book argues that a nuanced account of instrumental values (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  1
    Sustainable Goals : Feasible Paths to Desirable Long-Term Futures.Patrik Baard - 2014 - Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
    The general aim of this licentiate thesis is to analyze the framework in which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved. It is often claimed that goals should be realistic, meaning that they should be adjusted to known abilities. This thesis will argue that this might be very difficult in areas related to sustainable development and climate change adaptation, and that goals that are, to an acceptable degree, unrealistic, can have important functions. Essay I discusses long-term goal setting. When there (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16.  29
    Cautiously Utopian Goals : Philosophical Analyses of Climate Change Objectives and Sustainability Targets.Patrik Baard - 2016 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    In this thesis, the framework within which long-term goals are set and subsequently achieved or approached is analyzed. Sustainable development and climate change are areas in which goals have tobe set despite uncertainties. The analysis is divided into the normative motivations for setting such goals, what forms of goals could be set given the empirical and normative uncertainties, and how tomanage doubts regarding achievability or values after a goal has been set. Paper I discusses a set of questions that moral (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  2
    Biologisk mångfald och etik: Om artrikedom och naturvärden.Patrik Baard - 2020 - Tidskrift För Politisk Filosofi 24 (1):24-42.
    I denna artikel kommer jag att ge en översikt över olika argument som ger stöd för slutsatsen att biologisk mångfald per se är värdefullt och bör bevaras. Ett vanligt argument vilar på premissen att biologisk mångfald har egenvärde, men premissen är svår att göra rimlig och får lätt kontraintuitiva följder. Utöver det kommer jag även att kritiskt granska instrumentella värden, relationella värden, och vad som här kallas ’miljöspecifika’ värden. I den sistnämnda kategorin ingår begrepp som naturlighet och naturvärde. Dessa definieras (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Max Power: Identifying Minimum Capability Thresholds and Maximum Ceilings for Just Energy Transitions.Patrik Baard & Anders Melin - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics.
    In this paper, we apply the capability approach—with the addition of capability ceilings—to energy justice. We argue that, to ensure energy justice, energy policies and scenarios should consider enabling not only minimal capability thresholds but also maximum capability ceilings. It is permissible, perhaps even morally required, to limit the capabilities of those above the threshold if it is necessary for enabling those below the threshold to reach the level required by justice. We make a distinction between tragic and non-tragic conflicts (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  1
    Principlism and Citizen Science: The Possibilities and Limitations of Principlism for Guiding Responsible Citizen Science Conduct.Patrik Baard & Per Sandin - 2022 - Research Ethics 1:174701612211165.
    Citizen science (CS) has been presented as a novel form of research relevant for social concerns and global challenges. CS transforms the roles of participants to being actively involved at various stages of research processes, CS projects are dynamic, and pluralism arises when many non-professional researchers take an active involvement in research. Some argue that these elements all make existing research ethical principles and regulations ill-suited for guiding responsible CS conduct. However, while many have sought to highlight such challenges from (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Principlism and Citizen Science: The Possibilities and Limitations of Principlism for Guiding Responsible Citizen Science Conduct.Patrik Baard & Per Sandin - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Research Ethics.
    Research Ethics, Ahead of Print. Citizen science has been presented as a novel form of research relevant for social concerns and global challenges. CS transforms the roles of participants to being actively involved at various stages of research processes, CS projects are dynamic, and pluralism arises when many non-professional researchers take an active involvement in research. Some argue that these elements all make existing research ethical principles and regulations ill-suited for guiding responsible CS conduct. However, while many have sought to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  40
    L2: Intrinsic Need Satisfaction in Organizations: A Motivational Basis of Success in For-Profit and Not-for-Profit Settings.Paul P. Baard - 2002 - In Edward L. Deci & Richard M. Ryan (eds.), Handbook of Self-Determination Research. University of Rochester Press. pp. 255.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  22.  1
    Major Review: A Theology for the Twenty-First Century.Rachel Baard - 2022 - Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 76 (2):165-167.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  1
    Max Power: Implementing the Capabilities Approach to Identify Thresholds and Ceilings in Energy Justice.Patrik Baard & Anders Melin - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, we apply the capabilities approach—with the addition of capability ceilings—to energy justice. We argue that, to ensure energy justice, energy policies and scenarios should consider enabling not only minimal capability thresholds but also maximum capability ceilings. It is permissible, perhaps even morally required, to limit the capabilities of those above the threshold if it is necessary for enabling those below the threshold to reach the level required by justice. We make a distinction between tragic and non-tragic conflicts (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark