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  1. Ethical and Unethical Bargaining Tactics: An Empirical Study.Roy J. Lewicki & Robert J. Robinson - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (6):665-682.
    Competitive negotiators frequently use tactics which others view as "unethical", in that these tactics either violate standards of truth telling or violate the perceived rules of negotiation. This paper sought to determine how business students viewed a number of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, and to determine the underlying factor structure of these tactics. The factor analysis of these tactics revealed five clear factors which were highly similar across the two samples, and which parallel (to a moderate degree) categories of tactics (...)
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  • Sweet Little Lies: Social Context and the Use of Deception in Negotiation.Mara Olekalns, Carol T. Kulik & Lin Chew - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):13-26.
    Social context shapes negotiators’ actions, including their willingness to act unethically. We use a simulated negotiation to test how three dimensions of social context—dyadic gender composition, negotiation strategy, and trust—interact to influence one micro-ethical decision, the use of deception. Deception in all-male dyads was relatively unaffected by trust or the other negotiator’s strategy. In mixed-sex dyads, negotiators consistently increased their use of deception when three forms of trust were low and opponents used an accommodating strategy. However, in all-female dyads, negotiators (...)
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  • Mutually Dependent: Power, Trust, Affect and the Use of Deception in Negotiation.Mara Olekalns & Philip L. Smith - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):347-365.
    Using a simulated two-party negotiation, we examined how trustworthiness and power balance affected deception. In order to trigger deception, we used an issue that had no value for one of the two parties. We found that high cognitive trust increased deception whereas high affective trust decreased deception. Negotiators who expressed anxiety also used more deception whereas those who expressed optimism also used less deception. The nature of the negotiating relationship (mutuality and level of dependence) interacted with trust and negotiators’ affect (...)
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  • Maybe It’s Right, Maybe It’s Wrong: Structural and Social Determinants of Deception in Negotiation.Mara Olekalns, Christopher J. Horan & Philip L. Smith - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (1):89-102.
    Context shapes negotiators’ actions, including their willingness to act unethically. Focusing on negotiators use of deception, we used a simulated two-party negotiation to test how three contextual variables—regulatory focus, power, and trustworthiness—interacted to shift negotiators’ ethical thresholds. We demonstrated that these three variables interact to either inhibit or activate deception, providing support for an interactionist model of ethical decision-making. Three patterns emerged from our analyses. First, low power inhibited and high power activated deception. Second, promotion-focused negotiators favored sins of omission, (...)
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  • A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality.Carol S. Dweck & Ellen L. Leggett - 1988 - Psychological Review 95 (2):256-273.
  • The Crucial Role of Turnover Intentions in Transforming Moral Disengagement Into Deviant Behavior at Work.Jessica Siegel Christian & Aleksander P. J. Ellis - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2):1-16.
    Organizational deviance represents a costly behavior to many organizations. While some precursors to deviance have been identified, we hope to add to our predictive capabilities. Utilizing social cognitive theory and psychological contract theory as explanatory concepts, we explore the role of moral disengagement and turnover intentions, testing our hypotheses using two samples: a sample of 44 nurses from a hospital system in the Southwestern United States (Study 1), and a sample of 52 working adults collected from an online survey system (...)
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  • Personal Motives, Moral Disengagement, and Unethical Decisions by Entrepreneurs: Cognitive Mechanisms on the “Slippery Slope”.Robert A. Baron, Hao Zhao & Qing Miao - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (1):107-118.
    Entrepreneurs sometimes make unethical decisions that have devastating effects on their companies, stakeholders, and themselves. We suggest that insights into the origins of such actions can be acquired through attention to personal motives and their impact on moral disengagement—a cognitive process that deactivates moral self-regulation, thus enabling individuals to behave in ways inconsistent with their own values. We hypothesize that entrepreneurs’ motivation for financial gains is positively related to moral disengagement, while their motivation for self-realization is negatively related to this (...)
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