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The Ethics of Cultural Heritage

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2018)

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  1. Cultures and Cultural Property.James O. Young - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):111–124.
  • Profound Offense and Cultural Appropriation.James O. Young - 2005 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 63 (2):135–146.
  • Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, and the Commodification of Difference.Deborah Root - 1996 - Westview Press.
    In Arizona, a white family buys a Navajo-style blanket to be used on the guest-room bed. Across the country in New York, opera patrons weep to the death scene of Madam Butterfly.These seemingly unrelated events intertwine in Cannibal Cultureas Deborah Root examines the ways Western art and Western commerce co-opt, pigeonhole, and commodify so-called "native experiences." From nineteenth-century paintings of Arab marauders to our current fascination with New Age shamanism, Root explores and explodes the consumption of the Other as a (...)
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  • The Past is a Foreign Country.David Lowenthal - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this remarkably wide-ranging book Professor Lowenthal analyses the ever-changing role of the past in shaping our lives. A heritage at once nurturing and burdensome, the past allows us to make sense of the present whilst imposing powerful constraints upon the way that present develops. Some aspects of the past are celebrated, others expunged, as each generation reshapes its legacy in line with current needs. Drawing on all the arts, the humanities and the social sciences, the author uses sources as (...)
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  • Restoring Layered Landscapes: History, Ecology, and Culture.Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick (eds.) - 2015 - Oup Usa.
    Restoring Layered Landscapes explores ecological restoration in complex landscapes, where ecosystems intertwine with important sociopolitical meanings.
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  • The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era.Seyla Benhabib - 2002 - Princeton University Press.
    How can liberal democracy best be realized in a world fraught with conflicting new forms of identity politics and intensifying conflicts over culture? This book brings unparalleled clarity to the contemporary debate over this question. Maintaining that cultures are themselves torn by conflicts about their own boundaries, Seyla Benhabib challenges the assumption shared by many theorists and activists that cultures are clearly defined wholes. She argues that much debate--including that of "strong" multiculturalism, which sees cultures as distinct pieces of a (...)
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  • Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation.Bruce H. Ziff & Pratima V. Rao - 1997 - Rutgers University Press.
    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols. The book doesn't try and point fingers blaming anyone rather then stating facts of the matter over the gray area of cultural appropriation. Overall a really nice read.
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  • Environmental Values.John O'Neill, Alan Holland & Andrew Light - 1998 - Routledge.
    We live in a world confronted by mounting environmental problems; increasing global deforestation and desertification, loss of species diversity, pollution and global warming. In everyday life people mourn the loss of valued landscapes and urban spaces. Underlying these problems are conflicting priorities and values. Yet dominant approaches to policy-making seem ill-equipped to capture the various ways in which the environment matters to us. Environmental Values introduces readers to these issues by presenting, and then challenging, two dominant approaches to environmental decision-making, (...)
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  • Taking Responsibility for the Past: Reparation and Historical Injustice.Janna Thompson - 2002 - Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Injustices of the past cast a shadow on the present. They are the root cause of much harm, the source of enmity, and increasingly in recent times, the focus of demands for reparation. In this groundbreaking philosophical investigation, Janna Thompson examines the problems raised by reparative demands and puts forward a theory of reparation for historical injustices. The book argues that the problems posed by historical injustices are best resolved by a reconciliatory view of reparative justice and an approach that (...)
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  • Cultural Appropriation and the Arts.James O. Young - 2008 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Now, for the first time, a philosopher undertakes a systematic investigation of the moral and aesthetic issues to which cultural appropriation gives rise. Cultural appropriation is a pervasive feature of the contemporary world Young offers the first systematic philosophical investigation of the moral and aesthetic issues to which cultural appropriation gives rise Tackles head on the thorny issues arising from the clash and integration of cultures and their artifacts Questions considered include: “Can cultural appropriation result in the production of aesthetically (...)
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  • Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?Susan Moller Okin (ed.) - 1999 - Princeton University Press.
    Polygamy, forced marriage, female genital mutilation, punishing women for being raped, differential access for men and women to health care and education, unequal rights of ownership, assembly, and political participation, unequal vulnerability to violence. These practices and conditions are standard in some parts of the world. Do demands for multiculturalism — and certain minority group rights in particular — make them more likely to continue and to spread to liberal democracies? Are there fundamental conflicts between our commitment to gender equity (...)
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  • The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation.James O. Young & Conrad G. Brunk (eds.) - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation_ undertakes a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the moral and aesthetic questions that arise from the practice of cultural appropriation. Explores cultural appropriation in a wide variety of contexts, among them the arts and archaeology, museums, and religion Questions whether cultural appropriation is always morally objectionable Includes research that is equally informed by empirical knowledge and general normative theory Provides a coherent and authoritative perspective gained by the collaboration of philosophers and specialists in the field (...)
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  • Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology.Geoffrey Scarre & Robin Coningham (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Introduction Geoffrey Scarre and Robin Coningham; Part I. Claiming the Past: 2. The values of the past James O. Young; 3. Whose past? archaeological knowledge, community knowledge, and the embracing of conflict Piotr Bienkowski; 4. The past people want: heritage for the majority? Cornelius Holtorf; 5. The ethics of repatriation: rights of possession and duties of respect Janna Thompson; 6. On archaeological ethics and letting go Larry J. Zimmerman; 7. Hintang and the dilemma of benevolence: (...)
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  • Rectifying International Injustice: Principles of Compensation and Restitution Between Nations.Daniel Butt - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The history of international relations is characterized by widespread injustice. What implications does this have for those living in the present? Should contemporary states pay reparations to the descendants of the victims of historic wrongdoing? Many writers have dismissed the moral urgency of rectificatory justice in a domestic context, as a result of their forward-looking accounts of distributive justice. Rectifying International Injustice argues that historical international injustice raises a series of distinct theoretical problems, as a result of the popularity of (...)
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  • The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice.Chris Scarre & Geoffrey Scarre (eds.) - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The question of ethics and their role in archaeology has stimulated one of the discipline's liveliest debates. In this collection of essays, first published in 2006, an international team of archaeologists, anthropologists and philosophers explore the ethical issues archaeology needs to address. Marrying the skills and expertise of practitioners from different disciplines, the collection produces interesting insights into many of the ethical dilemmas facing archaeology today. Topics discussed include relations with indigenous peoples; the professional standards and responsibilities of researchers; the (...)
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  • A Lockean Argument for Black Reparations.Bernard R. Boxill - 2003 - The Journal of Ethics 7 (1):63-91.
    This is a defense of black reparations using the theory of reparations set out in John Locke''s The Second Treatise of Government. I develop two main arguments, what I call the ``inheritance argument'''' and the ``counterfactual argument,''''both of which have been thought to fail. In no case do I appeal to the false ideas that present day United States citizens are guilty of slavery or must pay reparation simply because the U.S. Government was once complicit in the crime.
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  • The Ethics of Historic Preservation.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):786-794.
    This article draws together research from various sub-disciplines of philosophy to offer an overview of recent philosophical work on the ethics of historic preservation. I discuss how philosophers writing about art, culture, and the environment have appealed to historical significance in crafting arguments about the preservation of objects, practices, and places. By demonstrating how it relates to core themes in moral and political philosophy, I argue that historic preservation is essentially concerned with ethical issues.
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  • The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History.David Lowenthal - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Heritage has burgeoned over the past quarter of a century from a small e;lite preoccupation into a major popular crusade. Everything from Disneyland to the Holocaust Museum, from the Balkan wars to the Northern Irish troubles, from Elvis memorabilia to the Elgin Marbles bears the marks of the cult of heritage. In this acclaimed book David Lowenthal explains the rise of this new obsession with the past and examines its power for both good and evil.
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  • Value in Ethics and Economics.Elizabeth Anderson - 1993 - Harvard University Press.
    Women as commercial baby factories, nature as an economic resource, life as one big shopping mall: This is what we get when we use the market as a common ...
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  • Cultural Appropriation Without Cultural Essentialism?Erich Hatala Matthes - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (2):343-366.
    Is there something morally wrong with cultural appropriation in the arts? I argue that the little philosophical work on this topic has been overly dismissive of moral objections to cultural appropriation. Nevertheless, I argue that philosophers working on epistemic injustice have developed powerful conceptual tools that can aid in our understanding of objections that have been levied by other scholars and artists. I then consider the relationship between these objections and the harms of cultural essentialism. I argue that focusing on (...)
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  • Ethical Dilemmas in Archaeological Practice: Looting, Repatriation, Stewardship, and the (Trans) Formation of Disciplinary Identity.Alison Wylie - 1996 - Perspectives on Science 4 (2):154-194.
    North American archaeologists have long defined their ethical responsibilities in terms of a commitment to scientific goals and an opposition to looting, vandalism, the commercial trade in antiquities, and other activities that threaten archaeological resources. In recent years, the clarity of these commitments has been eroded from two directions: professional archaeologists find commercial entanglements increasingly unavoidable, and a number of nonarchaeological interest groups object that they are not served by scientific exploitation of the record. I offer an analysis of issues (...)
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  • Ecological Restoration in Context: Ethics and the Naturalization of Former Military Lands.Marion Hourdequin & David G. Havlick - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (1):69-89.
    The philosophy of ecological restoration has focused primarily on three issues: the question of what to restore, whether and why restoration “fakes” nature, and how restoration shapes human-nature relationships. Using “M2W conversion sites” – former military lands recently redesignated as U.S. national wildlife refuges – as a case study, we examine how the restoration of these lands challenges existing philosophical frameworks for restoration. We argue that a contextual, case-based analysis best reveals the key ethical and philosophical questions related to restoration (...)
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  • Faking Nature.Robert Elliot - 1982 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):81 – 93.
    Environmentalists express concern at the destruction/exploitation of areas of the natural environment because they believe that those areas are of intrinsic value. An emerging response is to argue that natural areas may have their value restored by means of the techniques of environmental engineering. It is then claimed that the concern of environmentalists is irrational, merely emotional or even straightforwardly selfish. This essay argues that there is a dimension of value attaching to the natural environment which cannot be restored no (...)
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  • Archaeology and Respect for the Dead.Geoffrey Scarre - 2003 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (3):237–249.
  • Cultural Property, Restitution and Value.Thompson Janna - 2003 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (3):251–262.
  • Rock Art Aesthetics and Cultural Appropriation.Thomas Heyd - 2003 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 61 (1):37–46.
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  • Aboriginal Painting: Identity and Authenticity.Elizabeth Burns Coleman - 2001 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 59 (4):385–402.
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  • Historical Truth, National Myths and Liberal Democracy: On the Coherence of Liberal Nationalism.Arash Abizadeh - 2004 - Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (3):291–313.
    The claim that liberal democratic normative commitments are compatible with nationalism is challenged by the widely acknowledged fact that national identities invariably depend on historical myths: the nationalist defence of such publicly shared myths is in tension with liberal democratic theory’s commitment to norms of publicity, public justification, and freedom of expression. Recent liberal nationalist efforts to meet this challenge by justifying national myths on liberal democratic grounds fail to distinguish adequately between different senses of myth. Once this is done (...)
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  • Historic Injustices and the Moral Case for Cultural Repatriation.Karin Edvardsson Björnberg - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (3):461-474.
    It is commonly argued that cultural objects ought to be returned to their place of origin in order to remedy injustices committed in the past. In this paper, it is shown that significant challenges attach to this way of arguing. Although there is considerable intuitive appeal in the idea that if somebody wrongs another person then she ought to compensate for that injustice, the principle is difficult to apply to wrongdoings committed many decades or centuries ago. It is not clear (...)
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  • Exploitation and the Vulnerability Clause.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):619-629.
    What conditions of vulnerability must an individual face in order that we might ever correctly say that she or he has been wrongfully exploited? Mikhail Valdman has recently argued that wrongful exploitation is the extraction of excessive benefits from someone who cannot reasonably refuse one’s offer. So, ‘being unable to reasonably refuse an offer’ is Valdman’s answer to this question. I will argue that this answer is too narrow, but that other competing answers, like Alan Wertheimer’s, are too broad. I (...)
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  • Immigration and the Significance of Culture.Samuel Scheffler - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (2):93–125.
  • Ethical Judgments in Museums.Ivan Gaskell - 2008 - In Garry Hagberg (ed.), Art and Ethical Criticism. Blackwell. pp. 229--242.
     
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  • Tracking Epistemic Violence, Tracking Practices of Silencing.Kristie Dotson - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (2):236-257.
    Too often, identifying practices of silencing is a seemingly impossible exercise. Here I claim that attempting to give a conceptual reading of the epistemic violence present when silencing occurs can help distinguish the different ways members of oppressed groups are silenced with respect to testimony. I offer an account of epistemic violence as the failure, owing to pernicious ignorance, of hearers to meet the vulnerabilities of speakers in linguistic exchanges. Ultimately, I illustrate that by focusing on the ways in which (...)
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  • Essence of Culture and a Sense of History: A Feminist Critique of Cultural Essentialism.Uma Narayan - 1998 - Hypatia 13 (2):86 - 106.
    Drawing parallels between gender essentialism and cultural essentialism, I point to some common features of essentialist pictures of culture. I argue that cultural essentialism is detrimental to feminist agendas and suggest strategies for its avoidance. Contending that some forms of cultural relativism buy into essentialist notions of culture, I argue that postcolonial feminists need to be cautious about essentialist contrasts between "Western" and "Third World" cultures.
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  • Group Assertion.Jennifer Lackey - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (1):21-42.
    In this paper, I provide the framework for an account of group assertion. On my view, there are two kinds of group assertion, coordinated and authority-based, with authority-based group assertion being the core notion. I argue against a deflationary view, according to which a group’s asserting is understood in terms of individual assertions, by showing that a group can assert a proposition even when no individual does. Instead, I argue on behalf of an inflationary view, according to which it is (...)
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  • Historical Obligations.Janna Thompson - 2000 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 (3):334 – 345.
  • The Promise and Perils of an Ethic of Stewardship.Alison Wylie - 2005 - In Lynn Meskell & Peter Pels (eds.), Embedding Ethics. Berg. pp. 47--68.
  • Group-Differentiated Rights and the Problem of Membership.Suzy Killmister - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (2):227-255.
    Justifications of group-differentiated rights commonly overlook a crucial practical consideration: if rights are to be allocated on the basis of group membership, how should we determine which individuals belong to which group? Assuming that social identities are fixed and transparent runs the risk of creating further injustices, whilst acknowledging that social groups are porous and heterogeneous runs the risk of rendering group-differentiated rights impracticable. In this paper, I develop a schema for determining group membership which avoids both horns of this (...)
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  • Climb: Restorative Justice, Environmental Heritage, and the Moral Terrains of Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park.Robert Melchior Figueroa & Gordon Waitt - 2010 - Environmental Philosophy 7 (2):135-163.
    Recent decades have brought environmental justice studies to a much broader analysis and new areas of concern. We take this increased depth and breadth of environmental justice further by considering restorative justice, with a particular emphasis on reconciliation efforts between indigenous and non-indigenous citizens. Our focus is on the reconciliation efforts taken by the indigenous/non-indigenous jointmanagement structure of Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park. Usinga framework of restorative justice within a bivalent environmental justice approach, we consider the current management policies at the (...)
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  • Historical Environmental Values.J. Michael Scoville - 2013 - Environmental Ethics 35 (1):7-25.
    John O’Neill, Alan Holland, and Andrew Light usefully distinguish two ways of thinking about environmental values, namely, end-state and historical views. To value nature in an end-state way is to value it because it instantiates certain properties, such as complexity or diversity. In contrast, a historical view says that nature’s value is (partly) determined by its particular history. Three contemporary defenses of a historical view are explored in order to clarify: (1) the normatively relevant history; (2) how historical considerations are (...)
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  • Nature, Culture, and Natural Heritage: Toward a Culture of Nature.Thomas Heyd - 2005 - Environmental Ethics 27 (4):339-354.
    Nature and culture are usually treated as opposites. Nature, on this conception, is on the wane as a result of culture. A fresh analysis of the relation between these two terms in the light of the notion of “cultural landscapes” is needed. This account allows for nature to be understood as an important, distinctive category, even while granting the constitutive role of the culturally structured gaze. Culture and nature need not be conceived in opposition to each other, for it makes (...)
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  • ’Do Not Do Unto Others…’: Cultural Misrecognition and the Harms of Appropriation in an Open Source World.George P. Nicholas & Alison Wylie - 2012 - In Geoffrey Scarre & Robin Coningham (eds.), Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 195-221.
    In this chapter we explore two important questions that we believe should be central to any discussion of the ethics and politics of cultural heritage: What are the harms associated with appropriation and commodification, specifically where the heritage of Indigenous peoples is concerned? And how can these harms best be avoided? Archaeological concerns animate this discussion; we are ultimately concerned with fostering postcolonial archaeological practices. But we situate these questions in a broader context, addressing them as they arise in connection (...)
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  • Place-Historical Narratives: Road—or Roadblock—to Sustainability?Clare Palmer - 2011 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 14 (3):345 - 359.
    Ethics, Policy & Environment, Volume 14, Issue 3, Page 345-359, October 2011.
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  • Notes on Appropriation.Loretta Todd - 1990 - Parallelogramme 16 (1):24-33.
  • The Politics of Cultural Appropriation.John Rowell - 1995 - Journal of Value Inquiry 29 (1):137-142.
  • “Saving Lives or Saving Stones?” The Ethics of Cultural Heritage Protection in War.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2018 - Public Affairs Quarterly 32 (1):67-84.
    In discussion surrounding the destruction of cultural heritage in armed conflict, one often hears two important claims in support of intervention to safeguard heritage. The first is that the protection of people and the protection of heritage are two sides of the same coin. The second is that the cultural heritage of any people is part of the common heritage of all humankind. In this article, I examine both of these claims, and consider the extent to which they align with (...)
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  • Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 1996 - In The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. University of Utah Press. pp. 51--136.
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  • Cultural Property and Collective Identity.Elizabeth Burns Coleman - 2006 - In Michael Higgins & Stefan Herbrechter (eds.), Returning (to) Communities: Theory, Culture and Political Practice of the Communal. Brill.
  • Do Subaltern Artifacts Belong in Art Museums?Ivan Gaskell, A. W. Eaton, James O. Young & Conrad Brunk - 2009 - In James O. Young & Conrad Brunk (eds.), The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation. Wiley.
     
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  • Objects of Appropriation.Dominic McIver Lopes & Andrea Naomi Walsh - 2009 - In James O. Young & Conrad Brunk (eds.), The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation. Wiley.