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  1. The Moral Obligation to Be Vaccinated: Utilitarianism, Contractualism, and Collective Easy Rescue.Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (4):547-560.
    We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (...)
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  • What is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being.Richard Kraut - 2007 - Harvard University Press.
    In search of good -- A Socratic question -- Flourishing and well-being -- Mind and value -- Utilitarianism -- Rawls and the priority of the right -- Right, wrong, should -- The elimination of moral rightness -- Rules and good -- Categorical imperatives -- Conflicting interests -- Whose good? The egoist's answer -- Whose good? The utilitarian's answer - Self-denial, self-love, universal concern -- Pain, self-love, and altruism -- Agent-neutrality and agent-relativity -- Good, conation, and pleasure -- "Good" and "good (...)
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  • The Ethics of Vaccination.Alberto Giubilini - 2019 - Springer Verlag.
    This open access book discusses individual, collective, and institutional responsibilities with regard to vaccination from the perspective of philosophy and public health ethics. It addresses the issue of what it means for a collective to be morally responsible for the realisation of herd immunity and what the implications of collective responsibility are for individual and institutional responsibilities. The first chapter introduces some key concepts in the vaccination debate, such as ‘herd immunity’, ‘public goods’, and ‘vaccine refusal’; and explains why failure (...)
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  • What is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being.Richard Kraut - 2007 - Harvard University Press.
    What is good, how do we know, and how important is it? In this book, one of our most respected analytical philosophers reorients these questions around the notion of what causes human beings to flourish. Observing that we can sensibly address what is good for plants and animals no less than what is good for people, Kraut applies a general principle to the entire living world: what is good for complex organisms consists in the exercise of their natural powers.
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  • Philosophy of Medicine.Alex Broadbent - 2019 - Oup Usa.
    Philosophy of Medicine provides a fresh and comprehensive treatment of the topic. It offers a novel theory of the nature of medicine, and proposes a new attitude to medicine, aimed at improving the quality of debates between medical traditions and facilitating medicine's decolonization.
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  • Against Autonomy: Justifying Coercive Paternalism.Sarah Conly - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    Since Mill's seminal work On Liberty, philosophers and political theorists have accepted that we should respect the decisions of individual agents when those decisions affect no one other than themselves. Indeed, to respect autonomy is often understood to be the chief way to bear witness to the intrinsic value of persons. In this book, Sarah Conly rejects the idea of autonomy as inviolable. Drawing on sources from behavioural economics and social psychology, she argues that we are so often irrational in (...)
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  • Obligatory Precautions Against Infection.Marcel Verweij - 2005 - Bioethics 19 (4):323–335.
  • Mandatory Vaccination: An Unqualified Defence.Roland Pierik - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (2):381-398.
    The 2015 Disneyland outbreak of measles in the US unequivocally brought to light what had been brewing below the surface for a while: a slow but steady decline in vaccination rates resulting in a rising number of outbreaks. This can be traced back to an increasing public questioning of vaccines by an emerging anti-vaccination movement. This article argues that, in the face of diminishing vaccination rates, childhood vaccinations should not be seen as part of the domain of parental choice but, (...)
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  • Coercive Paternalism in Health Care: Against Freedom of Choice.Sarah Conly - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (3):pht025.
    I argue that it can be morally permissible to coerce people into doing what is good for their own health. I discuss recent initiatives in New York City that are designed to take away certain unhealthy options from local citizens, and argue that this does not impose on them in unjustifiable ways. Good paternalistic measures are designed to promote people's long-term goals, and to prevent them from making short-term decisions that interfere with reaching those, and New York's attempts to ban (...)
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  • Maternal Immunisation : Ethical Issues.Marcel Verweij, Philipp Lambach, Justin R. Ortiz & Andreas Reis - unknown
    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and neonatal tetanus. Additional vaccines that have been recommended for routine maternal immunisation include those for influenza and pertussis, and other vaccines are being developed. Maternal immunisation is controversial since regulators, professionals, and the public are (...)
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  • The Normative Core of Paternalism.Kalle Grill - 2007 - Res Publica 13 (4):441-458.
    The philosophical debate on paternalism is conducted as if the property of being paternalistic should be attributed to actions. Actions are typically deemed to be paternalistic if they amount to some kind of interference with a person and if the rationale for the action is the good of the person interfered with. This focus on actions obscures the normative issues involved. In particular, it makes it hard to provide an analysis of the traditional liberal resistance to paternalism. Given the fact (...)
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  • Who Calls the Shots? The Ethics of Adolescentself-Consent for HPV Vaccination.Suchi Agrawal & Stephanie R. Morain - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (8):531-535.
    While the human papillomavirus vaccine is medically indicated to reduce the risk of genital warts and certain types of cancer, rates of HPV vaccination repeatedly fall short of public health goals. Individual-level factors contributing to low vaccination rates are well documented. However, system-level barriers, particularly the need for parental consent, have been less explored. To date, there is no legal or ethical consensus in the USA regarding whether adolescents might permissibly self-consent to the HPV vaccine. Consequently, there is considerable variability (...)
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  • Against Autonomy: Justifying Coercive Paternalism.Sarah Conly - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (5):349-349.
    Too often, we as individuals do things that harm us, that seriously interfere with our being able to live in the way that we want. We eat food that makes us obese, that promotes diabetes, heart failure and other serious illness, while at the same time, we want to live long and healthy lives. Too many of us smoke cigarettes, even while acknowledging we wish we had never begun. We behave in ways that undercut our ability to reach some of (...)
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  • Methods and Principles in Biomedical Ethics.T. L. Beauchamp - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (5):269-274.
    The four principles approach to medical ethics plus specification is used in this paper. Specification is defined as a process of reducing the indeterminateness of general norms to give them increased action guiding capacity, while retaining the moral commitments in the original norm. Since questions of method are central to the symposium, the paper begins with four observations about method in moral reasoning and case analysis. Three of the four scenarios are dealt with. It is concluded in the “standard” Jehovah’s (...)
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  • The Sexual Ethics of HPV Vaccination for Boys.Jeroen Luyten, Bart Engelen & Philippe Beutels - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (1):27-42.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is a leading cause of cervical cancer in women but the virus is increasingly being linked to several other cancers in men and women alike. Since the introduction of safe and effective but also expensive vaccines, many developed countries have implemented selective vaccination programs for girls. Some however argue that these programs should be expanded to include boys, since (1) HPV constitutes non-negligible health risks for boys as (...)
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  • Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Catholic Social Teaching and the Duty to Vaccinate”.Paul J. Carson & Anthony T. Flood - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (4):1-3.
    Since the last century, vaccination has been one of the most important tools we possess for the prevention and elimination of disease. Yet the tremendous gains from vaccination are now threatened by a growing hesitance to vaccinate based on a variety of concerns or objections. Geographic clustering of some families who choose not to vaccinate has led to a number of well-publicized outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Of note is that some of these outbreaks are centered within some Christian religious groups (...)
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  • Altruism and Freedom.Jonathan Seglow - 2002 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 5 (4):145-163.
  • Altruism and Freedom.Jonathan Seglow - 2002 - In Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy. F. Cass Publishers. pp. 145-163.
    Though people value altruism, they also value freely choosing if and when to be altruistic. They essay explores the question of whether a society that is more altruistic would be one which is more free or less. It begins by considering cases where altruism is legally enforced, the paradigm example of which is good Samaritan legislation. I argue that coercively enforcing altruistic duties submerges people's altruistic motives under the demands of justice (which is not to say that these intrusions on (...)
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  • What is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being.Richard Kraut - 2009 - Analysis 69 (3):576-578.
    Anyone familiar with Richard Kraut's work in ancient philosophy will be excited to see him putting aside the dusty tomes of the ancients and delving into ethics first-hand. He does not disappoint. His book is a lucid and wide-ranging discussion that provides at least the core of an ethical theory and an appealing set of answers to a range of ethical questions.Kraut aims to provide an alternative to utilitarianism that preserves the good-centred nature of that theory. He claims that all (...)
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  • What is the Responsibility of National Government with Respect to Vaccination?M. F. Verweij & H. Houweling - unknown
    Given the ethical aspects of vaccination policies and current threats to public trust in vaccination, it is important that governments follow clear criteria for including new vaccines in a national programme. The Health Council of the Netherlands developed such a framework of criteria in 2007, and has been using this as basis for advisory reports about several vaccinations. However, general criteria alone offer insufficient ground and direction for thinking about what the state ought to do. In this paper, we present (...)
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  • The Meaning of 'Public' in 'Public Health'.Marcel Verweij & Angus Dawson - 2007 - In Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.), Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health. Clarendon Press.
     
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  • Herd Protection as a Public Good: Vaccination and Our Obligations to Others.Angus Dawson - 2007 - In Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.), Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health. Clarendon Press.