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  1. Addressing research integrity challenges: from penalising individual perpetrators to fostering research ecosystem quality care.Hub Zwart & Ruud ter Meulen - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-5.
    Concern for and interest in research integrity has increased significantly during recent decades, both in academic and in policy discourse. Both in terms of diagnostics and in terms of therapy, the tendency in integrity discourse has been to focus on strategies of individualisation. Other contributions to the integrity debate, however, focus more explicitly on environmental factors, e.g. on the quality and resilience of research ecosystems, on institutional rather than individual responsibilities, and on the quality of the research culture. One example (...)
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  • Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Mira Zöller, Hub Zwart, Knut Vie, Krista Varantola, Marta Tazewell, Margit Sutrop, Thomas Saretzki, Sarah Rijcke, Barend Meulen, Inge Lerouge, Matthias Kaiser, Jacques Janssen, Ingrid Jacobsen, Serge Horbach, Bert Heinrichs, Gloria Fuster, Carlo Casonato, Henriette Bout, Giles Birchley, Sharon Bailey, Frank Anthun & Ellen-Marie Forsberg - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  • Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.Froukje C. Weidema, Bert Ac Molewijk, Frans Kamsteeg & Guy Am Widdershoven - 2013 - Nursing Ethics 20 (6):617-631.
    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (...)
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  • Are Ethics Training Programs Improving? A Meta-Analytic Review of Past and Present Ethics Instruction in the Sciences.Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Ethics and Behavior 27 (5):351-384.
    Given the growing public concern and attention placed on cases of research misconduct, government agencies and research institutions have increased their efforts to develop and improve ethics education programs for scientists. The present study sought to assess the impact of these increased efforts by sampling empirical studies published since the year 2000. Studies published prior to 2000 examined in other meta-analytic work were also included to provide a baseline for assessing gains in ethics training effectiveness over time. In total, this (...)
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  • Organizing moral case deliberation Experiences in two Dutch nursing homes.S. van der Dam, T. A. Abma, A. C. Molewijk, M. J. M. Kardol, Jmga Schols & G. A. M. Widdershoven - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (3):327-340.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a specific form of clinical ethics, aiming to stimulate ethical reflection in daily practice in order to improve the quality of care. This article focuses on the implementation of MCD in nursing homes and the questions how and where to organize MCD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate one way of organizing MCD in two Dutch nursing homes. In both of these nursing homes the MCD groups had a heterogeneous composition and were organized (...)
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  • A Meta-analytic Comparison of Face-to-Face and Online Delivery in Ethics Instruction: The Case for a Hybrid Approach.E. Michelle Todd, Logan L. Watts, Tyler J. Mulhearn, Brett S. Torrence, Megan R. Turner, Shane Connelly & Michael D. Mumford - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (6):1719-1754.
    Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses. The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format. Process-based contents were best delivered face-to-face, whereas contents delivered online (...)
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  • Ensuring PhD Development of Responsible Conduct of Research Behaviors: Who’s Responsible?Sandra L. Titus & Janice M. Ballou - 2014 - Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):221-235.
    The importance of public confidence in scientific findings and trust in scientists cannot be overstated. Thus, it becomes critical for the scientific community to focus on enhancing the strategies used to educate future scientists on ethical research behaviors. What we are lacking is knowledge on how faculty members shape and develop ethical research standards with their students. We are presenting the results of a survey with 3,500 research faculty members. We believe this is the first report on how faculty work (...)
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  • Bioethics education in clinical settings: theory and practice of the dilemma method of moral case deliberation.Margreet Stolper, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):45.
    BackgroundMoral Case Deliberation is a specific form of bioethics education fostering professionals’ moral competence in order to deal with their moral questions. So far, few studies focus in detail on Moral Case Deliberation methodologies and their didactic principles. The dilemma method is a structured and frequently used method in Moral Case Deliberation that stimulates methodological reflection and reasoning through a systematic dialogue on an ethical issue experienced in practice.MethodsIn this paper we present a case-study of a Moral Case Deliberation with (...)
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  • Moral Distress in Scientific Research.David B. Resnik - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):13-15.
    In their target article “A Broader Understanding of Moral Distress,” Campbell, Ulrich, and Grady (2016) argue that the widely accepted definition of moral distress should be broadened to include so...
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  • Mentoring for Responsible Research: The Creation of a Curriculum for Faculty to Teach RCR in the Research Environment.Dena K. Plemmons & Michael W. Kalichman - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (1):207-226.
    Despite more than 25 years of a requirement for training in the responsible conduct of research, there is still little consensus about what such training should include, how it should be delivered, nor what constitutes “effectiveness” of such training. This lack of consensus on content, approaches and outcomes is evident in recent data showing high variability in the development and implementation of RCR instruction across universities and programs. If we accept that one of the primary aims of instruction in RCR/research (...)
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  • Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training.Robert T. Pennock & Michael O’Rourke - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):243-262.
    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock’s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations—theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered—that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students (...)
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  • Challenges for research ethics and moral knowledge construction in the applied social sciences.Stephen L. Payne - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 26 (4):307 - 318.
    Certain critical accounts of conventional research practices in business and the social sciences are explored in this essay. These accounts derive from alternative social paradigms and their underlying assumptions about appropriate social inquiry and knowledge construction. Among these alternative social paradigms, metatheories, mindscapes, or worldviews are social constructionist, critical, feminist, and postmodern or poststructural thinking. Individuals with these assumptions and values for knowledge construction are increasingly challenging conventional scholarship in what has been referred to as paradigm debates or wars. Issues (...)
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  • Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multilevel Approach.Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele & Logan L. Watts - 2015 - Ethics and Behavior 25 (1):37-60.
    Although education in the responsible conduct of research is considered necessary, evidence bearing on the effectiveness of these programs in improving research ethics has indicated that, although some programs are successful, many fail. Accordingly, there is a need for systematic evaluation of ethics education programs. In the present effort, we examine procedures for evaluation of ethics education programs from a multilevel perspective: examining both within-program evaluation and cross-program evaluation. With regard to within-program evaluation, we note requisite designs and measures for (...)
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  • Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education. [REVIEW]Tyler J. Mulhearn, Logan M. Steele, Logan L. Watts, Kelsey E. Medeiros, Michael D. Mumford & Shane Connelly - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):883-912.
    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were (...)
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  • The practical importance of theory in clinical ethics support services.Bert Molewijk, Anne Slowther & Mark Aulisio - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (7):ii-iii.
  • Emotions and Clinical Ethics Support. A Moral Inquiry into Emotions in Moral Case Deliberation.Bert Molewijk, Dick Kleinlugtenbelt, Scott M. Pugh & Guy Widdershoven - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (4):257-268.
    Emotions play an important part in moral life. Within clinical ethics support (CES), one should take into account the crucial role of emotions in moral cases in clinical practice. In this paper, we present an Aristotelian approach to emotions. We argue that CES can help participants deal with emotions by fostering a joint process of investigation of the role of emotions in a case. This investigation goes beyond empathy with and moral judgment of the emotions of the case presenter. In (...)
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  • Addressing research integrity challenges: from penalising individual perpetrators to fostering research ecosystem quality care.Ruud Meulen & Hub Zwart - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-5.
    Concern for and interest in research integrity has increased significantly during recent decades, both in academic and in policy discourse. Both in terms of diagnostics and in terms of therapy, the tendency in integrity discourse has been to focus on strategies of individualisation (detecting and punishing individual deviance). Other contributions to the integrity debate, however, focus more explicitly on environmental factors, e.g. on the quality and resilience of research ecosystems, on institutional rather than individual responsibilities, and on the quality of (...)
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  • Beyond Recommendation and Mediation: Moral Case Deliberation as Moral Learning in Dialogue.Suzanne Metselaar, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (1):50-51.
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  • Students' Ethical Awareness and Conceptions of Research Ethics.Erika Löfström - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (5):349 - 361.
    The study focused on university students' understanding and conceptions of ethical issues in research. Domain-specific and domain-transcending measures were developed to gauge the students' awareness of ethical issues. Responses were obtained from 269 undergraduate and graduate students at a U.S. regional university. Participant withdrawal, the debriefing of research participants, the dissemination of findings, and giving credit to co-contributors were the most challenging ethical issues for the students. Ethical awareness was predicted by professional and organizational socialization, and perspective taking. Contextualization greatly (...)
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  • Developing a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum for professionalism and scientific integrity training for biomedical graduate students.N. L. Jones, A. M. Peiffer, A. Lambros, M. Guthold, A. D. Johnson, M. Tytell, A. E. Ronca & J. C. Eldridge - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (10):614-619.
    A multidisciplinary faculty committee designed a curriculum to shape biomedical graduate students into researchers with a high commitment to professionalism and social responsibility and to provide students with tools to navigate complex, rapidly evolving academic and societal environments with a strong ethical commitment. The curriculum used problem-based learning (PBL), because it is active and learner-centred and focuses on skill and process development. Two courses were developed: Scientific Professionalism: Scientific Integrity addressed discipline-specific and broad professional norms and obligations for the ethical (...)
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  • Designing integrated research integrity training: authorship, publication, and peer review.Jane Jacobs, Stephanie Bradbury, Anne Walsh, Virginia Barbour & Mark Hooper - 2018 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 3 (1).
    This paper describes the experience of an academic institution, the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), developing training courses about research integrity practices in authorship, publication, and Journal Peer Review. The importance of providing research integrity training in these areas is now widely accepted; however, it remains an open question how best to conduct this training. For this reason, it is vital for institutions, journals, and peak bodies to share learnings.We describe how we have collaborated across our institution to develop training (...)
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  • A pragmatist approach to clinical ethics support: overcoming the perils of ethical pluralism.Giulia Inguaggiato, Suzanne Metselaar, Rouven Porz & Guy Widdershoven - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (3):427-438.
    In today’s pluralistic society, clinical ethics consultation cannot count on a pre-given set of rules and principles to be applied to a specific situation, because such an approach would deny the existence of different and divergent backgrounds by imposing a dogmatic and transcultural morality. Clinical ethics support (CES) needs to overcome this lack of foundations and conjugate the respect for the difference at stake with the necessity to find shared and workable solutions for ethical issues encountered in clinical practice. We (...)
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  • Reactively, Proactively, Implicitly, Explicitly? Academics’ Pedagogical Conceptions of how to Promote Research Ethics and Integrity.Heidi Hyytinen & Erika Löfström - 2017 - Journal of Academic Ethics 15 (1):23-41.
    This article focuses on academics’ conceptions of teaching research ethics and integrity. Seventeen academics from a Finnish research intensive university participated in this qualitative study. The data were collected using a qualitative multi-method approach, including think-aloud and interview data. The material was scrutinized using thematic analysis, with both deductive and inductive approaches. The results revealed variation in academics’ views on the responsibility for teaching research integrity, the methods employed to teach it and the necessity of intervening when misconduct occurs. The (...)
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  • Impact of moral case deliberation in healthcare settings: a literature review.Maaike M. Haan, Jelle L. P. van Gurp, Simone M. Naber & A. Stef Groenewoud - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):85.
    An important and supposedly impactful form of clinical ethics support is moral case deliberation. Empirical evidence, however, is limited with regard to its actual impact. With this literature review, we aim to investigate the empirical evidence of MCD, thereby a) informing the practice, and b) providing a focus for further research on and development of MCD in healthcare settings. A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science. Both the data collection and the (...)
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  • Truth and Method.H. G. Gadamer - 1975 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 36 (4):487-490.
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  • Good Scientific Practice: Developing a Curriculum for Medical Students in Germany.Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow & Florian Steger - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):127-139.
    German medical schools have not yet sufficiently introduced students to the field of good scientific practice. In order to prevent scientific misconduct and to foster scientific integrity, courses on GSP must be an integral part of the curriculum of medical students. Based on a review of the literature, teaching units and materials for two courses on GSP were developed and tested in a pilot course. The pilot course was accompanied by a pre-post evaluation that assessed students’ knowledge and attitudes towards (...)
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  • Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Frank O. Anthun, Sharon Bailey, Giles Birchley, Henriette Bout, Carlo Casonato, Gloria González Fuster, Bert Heinrichs, Serge Horbach, Ingrid Skjæggestad Jacobsen, Jacques Janssen, Matthias Kaiser, Inge Lerouge, Barend van der Meulen, Sarah de Rijcke, Thomas Saretzki, Margit Sutrop, Marta Tazewell, Krista Varantola, Knut Jørgen Vie, Hub Zwart & Mira Zöller - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on (...)
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  • Enhancing the culture of research ethics on university campuses.Kryste Ferguson, Sandra Masur, Lynne Olson, Julio Ramirez, Elisa Robyn & Karen Schmaling - 2007 - Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):189-198.
    Institutions create their own internal cultures, including the culture of ethics that pervades scientific research, academic policy, and administrative philosophy. This paper addresses some of the issues involved in institutional enhancement of its culture of research ethics, focused on individual empowerment and strategies that individuals can use to initiate institutional change.
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  • The absent professor: Why we don't teach research ethics and what to do about it.Arri Eisen & Roberta M. Berry - 2002 - American Journal of Bioethics 2 (4):38 – 49.
    Research ethics education in the biosciences has not historically been a priority for research universities despite the fact that funding agencies, government regulators, and the parties involved in the research enterprise agree that it ought to be. The confluence of a number of factors, including scrutiny and regulation due to increased public awareness of the impact of basic research on society, increased public and private funding, increased diversity and collaboration among researchers, the impressive success and speed of research advances, and (...)
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  • A Meta-Analysis of Ethics Instruction Effectiveness in the Sciences.Lynn D. Devenport, Shane Connelly, Ryan P. Brown, Michael D. Mumford, Ethan P. Waples, Alison L. Antes & Stephen T. Murphy - 2009 - Ethics and Behavior 19 (5):379-402.
    Scholars have proposed a number of courses and programs intended to improve the ethical behavior of scientists in an attempt to maintain the integrity of the scientific enterprise. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis based on 26 previous ethics program evaluation efforts, and the results showed that the overall effectiveness of ethics instruction was modest. The effects of ethics instruction, however, were related to a number of instructional program factors, such as course content and delivery methods, in (...)
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  • Moral competence, moral teamwork and moral action - the European Moral Case Deliberation Outcomes (Euro-MCD) Instrument 2.0 and its revision process. [REVIEW]J. C. de Snoo-Trimp, H. C. W. de Vet, G. A. M. Widdershoven, A. C. Molewijk & M. Svantesson - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-18.
    BackgroundClinical Ethics Support (CES) services are offered to support healthcare professionals in dealing with ethically difficult situations. Evaluation of CES is important to understand if it is indeed a supportive service in order to inform and improve future implementation of CES. Yet, methods to measure outcomes of CES are scarce. In 2014, the European Moral Case Deliberation Outcomes Instrument (Euro-MCD) was developed to measure outcomes of Moral Case Deliberation (MCD). To further validate the instrument, we tested it in field studies (...)
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  • Field-testing the Euro-MCD Instrument: Experienced outcomes of moral case deliberation.Janine C. de Snoo-Trimp, Bert Molewijk, Gøril Ursin, Berit Støre Brinchmann, Guy A. M. Widdershoven, Henrica C. W. de Vet & Mia Svantesson - forthcoming - Nursing Ethics:096973301984945.
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  • Development of Role-Play Scenarios for Teaching Responsible Conduct of Research.Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Anderson & Michael C. Loui - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (3):573-589.
    We describe the development, testing, and formative evaluation of nine role-play scenarios for teaching central topics in the responsible conduct of research to graduate students in science and engineering. In response to formative evaluation surveys, students reported that the role-plays were more engaging and promoted deeper understanding than a lecture or case study covering the same topic. In the future, summative evaluations will test whether students display this deeper understanding and retain the lessons of the role-play experience.
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  • Case-Based Ethics Instruction: The Influence of Contextual and Individual Factors in Case Content on Ethical Decision-Making.Zhanna Bagdasarov, Chase E. Thiel, James F. Johnson, Shane Connelly, Lauren N. Harkrider, Lynn D. Devenport & Michael D. Mumford - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1305-1322.
    Cases have been employed across multiple disciplines, including ethics education, as effective pedagogical tools. However, the benefit of case-based learning in the ethics domain varies across cases, suggesting that not all cases are equal in terms of pedagogical value. Indeed, case content appears to influence the extent to which cases promote learning and transfer. Consistent with this argument, the current study explored the influences of contextual and personal factors embedded in case content on ethical decision-making. Cases were manipulated to include (...)
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  • The University and the Responsible Conduct of Research: Who is Responsible for What? [REVIEW]Katherine Alfredo & Hillary Hart - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (3):447-457.
    Research misconduct has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, but mainly in terms of definitions and prescriptions for proper conduct. Even when case studies are cited, they are generally used as a repository of “lessons learned.” What has been lacking from this conversation is how the lessons of responsible conduct of research are imparted in the first place to graduate students, especially those in technical fields such as engineering. Nor has there been much conversation about who is responsible for what (...)
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