Switch to: Citations

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. What’s Wrong with Speciesism.Shelly Kagan - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):1-21.
    Peter Singer famously argued in Animal Liberation that almost all of us are speciesists, unjustifiably favoring the interests of humans over the similar interests of other animals. Although I long found that charge compelling, I now find myself having doubts. This article starts by trying to get clear about the nature of speciesism, and then argues that Singer's attempt to show that speciesism is a mere prejudice is unsuccessful. I also argue that most of us are not actually speciesists at (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   27 citations  
  • Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2009 - Res Publica 15 (2):165-178.
    Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in terms of persons’ high moral status as inviolable beings. I press the following criticism of this account: even if minimizing violations are permissible, we need not have a lower moral status provided other determinants thereof boost it. Thus, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Personal Rights and Public Space.Thomas Nagel - 1995 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 24 (2):83-107.
  • On Defending Deontology.David McNaughton & Piers Rawling - 1998 - Ratio 11 (1):37–54.
    This paper comprises three sections. First, we offer a traditional defence of deontology, in the manner of, for example, W.D. Ross (1965). The leading idea of such a defence is that the right is independent of the good. Second, we modify the now standard account of the distinction, in terms of the agent-relative/agentneutral divide, between deontology and consequentialism. (This modification is necessary if indirect consequentialism is to count as a form of consequentialism.) Third, we challenge a value-based defence of deontology (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   21 citations  
  • Gimmicky Representations of Moral Theories.Peter Vallentyne - 1988 - Metaphilosophy 19 (3-4):253-263.
    The teleological/deontological distinction is generally considered to be the fundamental classificatory distinction for ethics. I have argued elsewhere (Vallentyne forthcoming (a), and Ch.2 of Vallentyne 1984) that the distinction is ill understood and not as important as is generally supposed. Some authors have advocated a moral radical thesis. Oldenquist (1966) and Piper (1982) have both argued that the purported distinction is a pseudo distinction in that any theory can be represented both as teleological and as deontological. Smart (1973, p.13, and (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • Is Smith Obligated That(She)Not Kill the Innocent or That She(Not Kill the Innocent): Expressions and Rationales for Deontological Constraints‹.Richard Brook - 1997 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):451-461.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  • Kant’s Formula of Humanity‹.William Nelson - 2008 - Mind 117 (465):85-106.
    This paper is concerned with the normative content of Kant's formula of humanity (FH). More specifically, does FH, as some seem to think, imply the specific and rigid prescriptions in 'standard' deontological theories? To this latter question, I argue, the answer is 'no'. I propose reading FH largely through the formula of autonomy and the formula of the kingdom of ends, where I understand FA to describe the nature of the capacity of humanity-a capacity for self-governance. The latter, I suggest, (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • The Value of Inviolability.Thomas Nagel - 2007 - In Paul Bloomfield (ed.), Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press.
    One of the most difficult and widely discussed questions in recent moral theory is that of the status of human rights—the rights of individuals not to be violated, sacrificed, or used in certain ways, even in the service of valuable ends, either by other individuals or by governments and intermediate institutions. The reason for claiming such things as rights—apart from the natural tendency for rhetoric to escalate—is that they have some claim to be given priority over other values, a claim (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Consequentializing.Douglas W. Portmore - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (2):329-347.
    A growing trend of thought has it that any plausible nonconsequentialist theory can be consequentialized, which is to say that it can be given a consequentialist representation. In this essay, I explore both whether this claim is true and what its implications are. I also explain the procedure for consequentializing a nonconsequentialist theory and give an account of the motivation for doing so.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   44 citations  
  • Moral Contractualism.Nicholas Southwood - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (6):926-937.
    This article provides a critical introduction to contractualism as a moral or ethical theory, that is, as a theory of the rightness and wrongness of individual conduct – focusing specifically on the influential 'Kantian' version of contractualism due to T. M. Scanlon. I begin by elucidating the key features of Scanlon's contractualism: justifiability to others; reasonable rejectability; the individualist restriction; and mutual recognition. I then turn to discuss both its appeal and the main objections that have been raised to it (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Structures of Normative Theories.James Dreier - 1993 - The Monist 76 (1):22-40.
    Normative theorists like to divide normative theories into classes. One special point of focus has been to place utilitarianism into a larger class of theories which do not necessarily share its view about what is alone of impersonal intrinsic value, namely, individual human well-being, but do share another structural feature, roughly its demand that each person seek to maximize the realization of what is of impersonal intrinsic value. The larger class is distinguished from its complement in two apparently different ways. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   86 citations  
  • Contractarianism and the "Trolley" Problem1.Alexander Rosenberg - 1992 - Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (3):88-104.
  • A Distinction Without a Difference.Adrian M. S. Piper - 1982 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7 (1):403-435.
    I wish to defend the claim that given the content and structure of any moral theory we are likely to find palatable, there is no way of uniquely breaking down that theory into either consequentialist or deontological elements. Indeed, once we examine the actual structure of any such theory more closely, we see that it can be classified in either way arbitrarily. Hence if we ignore the metaethical pronouncements often made by adherents of the consequentialist-deontological distinction, we are quickly led (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame.Thomas Scanlon - 2008 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    The illusory appeal of double effect -- The significance of intent -- Means and ends -- Blame.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   428 citations  
  • What We Owe to Each Other.Thomas Scanlon - 1998 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    In this book, T. M. Scanlon offers new answers to these questions, as they apply to the central part of morality that concerns what we owe to each other.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2019 citations  
  • Scheffler on the Independence of Agent-Centered Preogatives From Agent-Centered Restrictions.Larry A. Alexander - 1987 - Journal of Philosophy 84 (5):277.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Theory Acceptance in Ethics.Norman Daniels - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (5):256-282.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   366 citations  
  • Agency and Morality.Richard Brook - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (4):190-212.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Reasons and Persons.Derek Parfit - 1984 - Oxford University Press.
    Challenging, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity, Parfit claims that we have a false view about our own nature. It is often rational to act against our own best interersts, he argues, and most of us have moral views that are self-defeating. We often act wrongly, although we know there will be no one with serious grounds for complaint, and when we consider future generations it is very hard to avoid conclusions (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2376 citations  
  • Patient-Relativity in Morality.Matthew Hammerton - 2016 - Ethics 127 (1):06-26.
    It is common to distinguish moral rules, reasons, or values that are agent-relative from those that are agent-neutral. One can also distinguish moral rules, reasons, or values that are moment-relative from those that are moment-neutral. In this article, I introduce a third distinction that stands alongside these two distinctions—the distinction between moral rules, reasons, or values that are patient-relative and those that are patient-neutral. I then show how patient-relativity plays an important role in several moral theories, gives us a better (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Harming Some to Save Others.Frances Kamm - 1989 - Philosophical Studies 57 (3):227 - 260.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm.Frances Kamm - 2007 - New York ;Oxford University Press.
    In Intricate Ethics, Kamm questions the moral importance of some non-consequentialist distinctions and then introduces and argues for the moral importance of ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   161 citations  
  • The Paradox of Deontology, Revisited.Ulrike Heuer - 2011 - In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  • Prudence, Morality, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma‹.Derek Parfit - 1981 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    "From the Proceedings of the British Academy, London, volume LXV (1979)" - title page. Series: Henrietta Hertz Trust annual philosophical lecture -- 1978 Other Titles: Proceedings of the British Academy. Vol.65: 1979.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • “Two Types of Moral Dilemmas”.Peter Vallentyne - 1989 - Erkenntnis 30 (3):301-318.
    die). In recent years the problem of moral dilemmas has received the attention of a number of philosophers. Some authors1 argue that moral dilemmas are not conceptually possible (i.e., that they are incoherent, given the nature of the concepts involved) because they are ruled out by certain valid principles of deontic logic. Other authors2 insist that moral dilemmas are conceptually possible, and argue that therefore the principles of deontic logic that rule them out must be rejected. In arguing for or (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Can Consequentialism Cover Everything?Bart Streumer - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (2):237-47.
    Derek Parfit, Philip Pettit and Michael Smith defend a version of consequentialism that covers everything. I argue that this version of consequentialism is false. Consequentialism, I argue, can only cover things that belong to a combination of things that agents can bring about.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  • Agent-Neutrality, Consequentialism, Utilitarianism … A Terminological Note.John Skorupski - 1995 - Utilitas 7 (1):49.
    It seems common at the moment to make agent-neutrality a necessary condition of ‘consequentialism” and to hold that deontological ethics are agent-relative. This note argues that both these tendencies regrettably obscure useful terms and distinctions. It concludes by considering what it would be best, now, to mean by ‘utilitarianism” and making a proposal.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  • Teleology, Agent‐Relative Value, and 'Good'.Mark Schroeder - 2007 - Ethics 117 (2):265-000.
    It is now generally understood that constraints play an important role in commonsense moral thinking and generally accepted that they cannot be accommodated by ordinary, traditional consequentialism. Some have seen this as the most conclusive evidence that consequentialism is hopelessly wrong,1 while others have seen it as the most conclusive evidence that moral common sense is hopelessly paradoxical.2 Fortunately, or so it is widely thought, in the last twenty-five years a new research program, that of Agent-Relative Teleology, has come to (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   67 citations  
  • Value Theory.Mark Schroeder - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The term “value theory” is used in at least three different ways in philosophy. In its broadest sense, “value theory” is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion — whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some “evaluative” aspect. In its narrowest sense, “value theory” is used for a relatively narrow area of normative ethical theory of particular concern to consequentialists. In (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   37 citations  
  • Contractualism and Restrictions.Robert Shaver - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (2):293-299.
    T.M. Scanlon writes that deontological constraints on taking lives are to be defended “by considering what principles licensing others to take our lives could be reasonably rejected.” I argue that Scanlon can offer no such defence of deontological constraints.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Agent-Centred Restrictions, Rationality, and the Virtues.Samuel Scheffler - 1985 - Mind 94 (375):409-419.
  • Prerogatives Without Restrictions.Samuel Scheffler - 1992 - Philosophical Perspectives 6:377-397.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • Intention and Permissibility, I.Thomas Scanlon - 2000 - Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74 (1):301-317.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  • The Right and the Good.W. D. Ross - 1930 - International Journal of Ethics 41 (3):343-351.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   165 citations  
  • Normative Reasons and the Agent-Neutral/Relative Dichotomy.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 2008 - Philosophia 37 (2):227-243.
    The distinction between the agent-relative and the agent-neutral plays a prominent role in recent attempts to taxonomize normative theories. Its importance extends to most areas in practical philosophy, though. Despite its popularity, the distinction remains difficult to get a good grip on. In part this has to do with the fact that there is no consensus concerning the sort of objects to which we should apply the distinction. Thomas Nagel distinguishes between agent-neutral and agent-relative values, reasons, and principles; Derek Parfit (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Practical Reason and Norms.Joseph Raz - 1975 - Hutchinson.
    Practical Reason and Norms focuses on three problems: In what way are rules normative, and how do they differ from ordinary reasons? What makes normative systems systematic? What distinguishes legal systems, and in what consists their normativity? All three questions are answered by taking reasons as the basic normative concept, and showing the distinctive role reasons have in every case, thus paving the way to a unified account of normativity. Rules are a structure of reasons to perform the required act (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   256 citations  
  • Actions, Intentions, and Consequences: The Doctrine of Doing and Allowing.Warren S. Quinn - 1989 - Philosophical Review 98 (3):287-312.
  • Agent-Relative Vs. Agent-Neutral.Douglas W. Portmore - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This is a general introduction to the agent-relative/agent-neutral distinction.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Global Consequentialism.Philip Pettit & Michael Smith - 2000 - In Brad Hooker, Elinor Mason & Dale Miller (eds.), Morality, Rules and Consequences: A Critical Reader. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Review: Kamm on the Morality of Killing. [REVIEW]Michael Otsuka - 1997 - Ethics 108 (1):197 - 207.
  • Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Robert Nozick - 1974 - Basic Books.
    Winner of the 1975 National Book Award, this brilliant and widely acclaimed book is a powerful philosophical challenge to the most widely held political and social positions of our age--liberal, socialist, and conservative.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1561 citations  
  • The View from Nowhere.Thomas Nagel - 1986 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 50 (4):729-730.
    No categories
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   155 citations  
  • The Possibility of Altruism.Thomas Nagel - 1970 - Oxford Clarendon Press.
    Just as there are rational requirements on thought, there are rational requirements on action. This book defends a conception of ethics, and a related conception of human nature, according to which altruism is included among the basic rational requirements on desire and action. Altruism itself depends on the recognition of the reality of other persons, and on the equivalent capacity to regard oneself as merely one individual among many.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   470 citations  
  • Agent-Relativity and Terminological Inexactitudes.David McNaughton & Piers Rawling - 1995 - Utilitas 7 (2):319.
  • Value and Agent-Relative Reasons.David McNaughton & Piers Rawling - 1995 - Utilitas 7 (1):31.
    In recent years the distinction between agent-relative and agent-neutral reasons has been taken by many to play a key role in distinguishing deontology from consequentialism. It is central to all universalist consequentialist theories that value is determined impersonally; the real value of any state of affairs does not depend on the point of view of the agent. No reference, therefore, to the agent or to his or her position in the world need enter into a consequentialist understanding of what makes (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • An Examination of Restricted Utilitarianism.H. J. McCloskey - 1957 - Philosophical Review 66 (4):466-485.
  • Agent-Relativity and the Doing- Happening Distinction‹.David McNaughton & Piers Rawling - 1991 - Philosophical Studies 63 (2):167 - 185.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   45 citations  
  • Relativity of Value and the Consequentialist Umbrella.Jennie Louise - 2004 - Philosophical Quarterly 54 (217):518–536.
    Does the real difference between non-consequentialist and consequentialist theories lie in their approach to value? Non-consequentialist theories are thought either to allow a different kind of value (namely, agent-relative value) or to advocate a different response to value ('honouring' rather than 'promoting'). One objection to this idea implies that all normative theories are describable as consequentialist. But then the distinction between honouring and promoting collapses into the distinction between relative and neutral value. A proper description of non-consequentialist theories can only (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   60 citations  
  • Deontic Restrictions Are Not Agent-Relative Restrictions.Eric Mack - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):61.
    The primary purpose of this essay is to offer a critique of a particular program within moral and political philosophy. This program can be stated quite succinctly. It is to account for agents' being subject to deontic restrictions on the basis of their possession of agent-relative reasons for acting in accordance with those restrictions. Needless to say, the statement of this program requires some further explication. Specifically, two claims require explanation: the reasons individuals have for or against engaging in particular (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  • Prerogatives, Restrictions, and Rights.Eric Mack - 2005 - Social Philosophy and Policy 22 (1):357-393.
    I offer a defense of the moral side-constraints to which Robert Nozick appeals in Anarchy, State and Utopia but for which he fails to provide a sustained justification. I identify a line of anti-consequentialist argumentation which is present in Nozick and which, in the terminology of Samuel Scheffler, moves first to affirm a personal prerogative which allows the individual not to sacrifice herself for the sake of the best overall outcome and second moves on to affirm restrictions (i.e., moral side-constraints) (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations