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  1. An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Among a Consumer’s Personal Values, Ethical Ideology and Ethical Beliefs.Sarah Steenhaut & Patrick van Kenhove - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):137 - 155.
    This study provides an additional partial test of the Hunt-Vitell theory [1986, Journal of Macro-marketing, 8, 5-16; 1993, 'The General Theory of Marketing Ethics: A Retrospective and Revision', in N. C. Smith and J. A. Quelch (eds.), Ethics in Marketing (Irwin Inc., Homewood), pp. 775-784], within the consumer ethics context. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among an individual's personal values (conceptualized by the typology of Schwartz [1992, 'Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests (...)
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  • Moral Identities, Social Anxiety, and Academic Dishonesty Among American College Students.Scott A. Wowra - 2007 - Ethics and Behavior 17 (3):303 – 321.
    Academic dishonesty is a persistent problem in the American educational system. The present investigation examined how reports of academic cheating related to students' emphasis on their moral identities and their sensitivity to social evaluation. Seventy college students at a large southeastern university completed a battery of surveys. Symptoms of social anxiety were positively correlated with recall of academic cheating. Additionally, relative to students who placed less importance on their moral identities, students who placed more importance on their moral identities recalled (...)
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  • The Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application.Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):267-275.
    This study compares college students with other adults in terms of the Muncy–Vitell (1992) consumer ethics scale. Further, the study updates the Muncy–Vitell consumer ethics scale with modifications that include rewording and the addition of new items. These new items can be grouped into three distinct categories – (1) downloading/buying counterfeit goods, (2) recycling/environmental awareness and (3) doing the right thing/doing good. The study also compares these two groups in terms of their attitude toward business. Results show that there is (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgments of the Final Consumer. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):585 - 597.
    Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs concerning various questionable consumer practices. The results show that consumers'' ethical beliefs are determined, in part, by who is at fault (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):33 - 47.
    This manuscript reviews and synthesizes most of the major research studies in the area of consumer ethics that have appeared since 1990. It examines both conceptual and empirical works with an objective of encouraging researchers to pursue research in the consumer ethics area. Toward this end, the paper also suggests directions for future research.
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  • Antecedents to the Justification of Norm Violating Behavior Among Business Practitioners.Scott J. Vitell, Megan Keith & Manisha Mathur - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):163 - 173.
    This study investigates the role that moral identity, religiosity, and the institutionalization of ethics play in determining the extent of justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Moral justification is where a person, rather than assuming responsibility for an outcome, attempts to legitimize ethically questionable behavior. Results of the study indicate that both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity as well as intrinsic religiosity and the explicit institutionalization of ethics within the organization are significant determinants of the (...)
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  • Cynicism and Morality.Samantha Vice - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (2):169-184.
    Our attitude towards cynicism is ambivalent: On the one hand we condemn it as a character failing and a trend that is undermining political and social life; on the other hand, we are often impressed by the apparent realism and honesty of the cynic. My aim in this paper is to offer an account of cynicism that can explain both our attraction and aversion. After defending a particular conception of cynicism, I argue that most of the work in explaining the (...)
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  • Cynicism and Morality.Samantha Vice - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
    Our attitude towards cynicism is ambivalent: On the one hand we condemn it as a character failing and a trend that is undermining political and social life; on the other hand, we are often impressed by the apparent realism and honesty of the cynic. My aim in this paper is to offer an account of cynicism that can explain both our attraction and aversion. After defending a particular conception of cynicism, I argue that most of the work in explaining the (...)
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  • Cynicism as a Fundamental Dimension of Moral Decision-Making: A Scale Development. [REVIEW]James H. Turner & Sean R. Valentine - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 34 (2):123 - 136.
    Altruism and cynicism are two fundamental algorithms of moral decision-making. This derives from the evolution of cooperative behavior and reciprocal altruism and the need to avoid being taken advantage of. Rushton (1986) developed a self-report scale to measure altruism, however no scale to measure cynicism has been developed for use in ethics research. Following a discussion of reciprocal altruism and cynicism, this article presents an 11-item self-report scale to measure cynicism, developed and validated using a sample of 271 customer-service and (...)
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  • Does Having an Ethical Brand Matter? The Influence of Consumer Perceived Ethicality on Trust, Affect and Loyalty.Jatinder J. Singh, Oriol Iglesias & Joan Manel Batista-Foguet - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):541-549.
    The recent rise in ethical consumerism has seen increasing numbers of corporate brands project a socially responsible and ethical image. But does having a corporate brand that is perceived to be ethical have any influence on outcome variables of interest for its product brands? This study analyzes the relationship between perceived ethicality at a corporate level, and brand trust, brand affect and brand loyalty at a product level. A theoretical framework with hypothesized relationships is developed and tested in order to (...)
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  • Half a Century of Marketing Ethics: Shifting Perspectives and Emerging Trends.Bodo B. Schlegelmilch & Magdalena Öberseder - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):1-19.
    Faced with an ever-growing number of ethical marketing issues and uncertainty about the impact of specialized ethics journals, researchers are struggling to keep abreast of developments in the field. In order to address these challenges, our paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on marketing ethics over almost 50 years, offers a citation analysis and develops a unique marketing ethics impact factor (MEIF). We contribute to the field in three important ways. First, we present a state-of-the-art picture of marketing (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Austrian Consumers. [REVIEW]Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (9):1009 - 1019.
    Business and Marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. In addition, no study has examined the ethical beliefs of Austrian consumers even though Austria maintains a unique status of political neutrality, nonalignment, stability, economic prosperity and geographical proximity to the East- and West-European countries. This research investigates the relationship between Machiavellianism, ethical (...)
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  • The Effects of Proximity and Empathy on Ethical Decision-Making: An Exploratory Investigation.Jennifer Mencl & Douglas R. May - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):201-226.
    The goals of this research were to (1) explore the direct effects of and interactions between magnitude of consequences and various types of proximity - social, psychological, and physical - on the ethical decision-making process and (2) investigate the influence of empathy on the ethical decision-making process. A carpal tunnel syndrome vignette and questionnaire were administered to a sample of human resource management professionals to test the hypothesized relationships. Significant relationships were found for the main effects between magnitude of consequences (...)
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  • Towards Shared Social Responsibility: A Study of Consumers' Willingness to Donate Micro-Insurances When Taking Out Their Own Insurance.Patty Jansen, Tobias Gössling & Toon Bullens - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (1):175 - 190.
    In recent yean, the concepts of charity and development aid have changed significantly. Present concepts combine direct money transfer with co-production, knowledge sharing and the development of products and services designed for the need of developing and transition economies. The concept of micro-financing is a financial service which has proven to allow for entrepreneurs in the respective countries to start up their businesses. A relatively new financial product for these countries is micro-insurance. This article deals with the question whether consumers (...)
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  • Towards Shared Social Responsibility: A Study of Consumers’ Willingness to Donate Micro-Insurances When Taking Out Their Own Insurance.Patty Jansen, Tobias Gössling & Toon Bullens - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (1):175-190.
    In recent years, the concepts of charity and development aid have changed significantly. Present concepts combine direct money transfer with co-production, knowledge sharing and the development of products and services designed for the need of developing and transition economies. The concept of micro-financing is a financial service which has proven to allow for entrepreneurs in the respective countries to start up their businesses. A relatively new financial product for these countries is micro-insurance. This article deals with the question whether consumers (...)
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  • Developing a Framework for Ethicallyquestionable Behavior in Consumption.Kyoko Fukukawa - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 41 (1-2):99 - 119.
    In light of the growing interest in "ethically questionable" consumer behavior, this study explores possible explanations of the occurrence of such behaviour, and subsequently develops a theoretical framework. The study is based upon data collected from 72 U.K. consumers, acquired from a projective approach with scenarios. Taking the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as an initial analytical framework, attitude, social influence, opportunity(as perceived behavioral control in TPB) and perceived unfairnessare identified as the antecedents of ethically questionable behavior (EQB). Social influenceis (...)
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  • An Empirical Investigation of Japanese Consumer Ethics.Robert C. Erffmeyer, Bruce D. Keillor & Debbie Thorne LeClair - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (1):35 - 50.
    One of the gaps in the current international marketing literature is in the area of consumer ethics. Using a sample drawn from Japanese consumers, this study investigates these individuals' reported ethical ideology and their perception of a number of different ethical situations in the realm of consumer behavior. Comparisons are then made across several demographic characteristics. The results reveal differences which provide theoretical support for expanded research in the area of cross-cultural/cross-national consumer ethics and highlight the need for managers to (...)
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  • Unpacking the Ethical Product.Andrew Crane - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (4):361 - 373.
    Acknowledging the increasing attention in the literature devoted to the incorporation of ethical considerations into consumers' purchase decisions, this paper explores the notion of an ethical product. It is argued that ethical issues have long been involved in consumers' product evaluations, but that there has been little academic investigation of ethics in terms of product concepts and theories. Ethics are thus examined in the context of the augmented product concept, and two dimensions of ethical augmentation are identified: direction and content. (...)
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  • Moral Emotions and Unethical Bargaining: The Differential Effects of Empathy and Perspective Taking in Deterring Deceitful Negotiation. [REVIEW]Taya R. Cohen - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):569-579.
    Two correlational studies tested whether personality differences in empathy and perspective taking differentially relate to disapproval of unethical negotiation strategies, such as lies and bribes. Across both studies, empathy, but not perspective taking, discouraged attacking opponents' networks, misrepresentation, inappropriate information gathering, and feigning emotions to manipulate opponents. These results suggest that unethical bargaining is more likely to be deterred by empathy than by perspective taking. Study 2 also tested whether individual differences in guilt proneness and shame proneness inhibited the endorsement (...)
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  • The Role of Spiritual Well-Being and Materialism in Determining Consumers' Ethical Beliefs: An Empirical Study with Australian Consumers. [REVIEW]Rafi M. M. I. Chowdhury & Mario Fernando - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (1):61-79.
    A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship of Australian consumers’ lived (experienced) spiritual well-being and materialism with the various dimensions of consumer ethics. Spiritual well-being is composed of four domains—personal, communal, transcendental and environmental well-being. All four domains were examined in relation to the various dimensions of consumers’ ethical beliefs (active/illegal dimension, passive dimension, active/legal dimension, ‘no harm, no foul’ dimension and ‘doing good’/recycling dimension). The results indicated that lived communal well-being was negatively related to perceptions of the active/illegal (...)
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  • An Exploratory Study Into the Factors Impeding Ethical Consumption.Jeffery P. Bray, Nick Johns & David Kilburn - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (4):597 - 608.
    Although consumers are increasingly engaged with ethical factors when forming opinions about products and making purchase decisions, recent studies have highlighted significant differences between consumers' intentions to consume ethically, and their actual purchase behaviour. This article contributes to an understanding of this 'Ethical Purchasing Gap' through a review of existing literature, and the inductive analysis of focus group discussions. A model is suggested which includes exogenous variables such as moral maturity and age which have been well covered in the literature, (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: The Role of Self-Regulatory Focus.Tine Bock & Patrick Kenhove - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):241-255.
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  • Consumer Ethics: The Role of Self-Regulatory Focus.Tine De Bock & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):241 - 255.
    The present study investigates the influence of self-regulatory focus on consumer ethical beliefs (i.e., consumers' judgment of various unethical consumer practices). The self-regulatory focus framework is highly influential and applies to an impressively wide spectrum of topics across a diverse array of domains. However, previous research has not yet examined the link between this personality construct and the consumer ethics field. Findings indicate that promotion affects one's attitude toward questionable consumer practices with those having a stronger (versus weaker) promotion focus (...)
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  • Do What Consumers Say Matter? The Misalignment of Preferences with Unconstrained Ethical Intentions.Pat Auger & Timothy M. Devinney - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (4):361-383.
    Nearly all studies of consumers’ willingness to engage in ethical or socially responsible purchasing behavior is based on unconstrained survey response methods. In the present article we ask the question of how well does asking consumers the extent to which they care about a specific social or ethical issue relate to how they would behave in a more constrained environment where there is no socially acceptable response. The results of a comparison between traditional survey questions of “intention to purchase” and (...)
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  • Global Ethics: An Introduction.Kimberly Hutchings - 2010 - Polity.
    The field of global ethics draws on traditions of moral theory, mostly derived from western philosophy, in order to address moral problems specific to an increasingly globalised world. This book provides an accessible introduction to the field of global ethics for students of politics, international relations and globalisation. It offers an overview and assessment of key perspectives in global ethics and their implications for substantive moral issues in global politics. These issues include the morality of state and non-state violence, the (...)
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  • The Theory of Moral Sentiments.Adam Smith - 1759 - Dover Publications.
    The foundation for a system of morals, this 1749 work is a landmark of moral and political thought. Its highly original theories of conscience, moral judgment, and virtue offer a reconstruction of the Enlightenment concept of social science, embracing both political economy and theories of law and government.
  • Altruism in Humans.Charles Daniel Batson - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Altruism in Humans takes a hard-science look at the possibility that we humans have the capacity to care for others for their sakes rather than simply for our own. Based on an extensive series of theory-testing laboratory experiments conducted over the past 35 years, this book details a theory of altruistic motivation, offers a comprehensive summary of the research designed to test the empathy-altruism hypothesis, and considers the theoretical and practical implications of this conclusion. Authored by the world's preeminent scholar (...)
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  • Understanding Moral Functioning.Karl Aquino & Dan Freeman - 2009 - In Darcia Narvaez & Daniel Lapsley (eds.), Personality, Identity, and Character. Cambridge University Press. pp. 375.
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