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  1. Board Diversity in the United Kingdom and Norway: An Exploratory Analysis.Johanne Grosvold, Stephen Brammer & Bruce Rayton - 2007 - Business Ethics, the Environment and Responsibility 16 (4):344–357.
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  • Legislating a Woman’s Seat on the Board: Institutional Factors Driving Gender Quotas for Boards of Directors.Siri Terjesen, Ruth V. Aguilera & Ruth Lorenz - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):233-251.
    Ten countries have established quotas for female representation on publicly traded corporate and/or state-owned enterprise boards of directors, ranging from 33 to 50 %, with various sanctions. Fifteen other countries have introduced non-binding gender quotas in their corporate governance codes enforcing a “comply or explain” principle. Countless other countries’ leaders and policy groups are in the process of debating, developing, and approving legislation around gender quotas in boards. Taken together, gender quota legislation significantly impacts the composition of boards of directors (...)
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  • Board Age and Gender Diversity: A Test of Competing Linear and Curvilinear Predictions. [REVIEW]Muhammad Ali, Yin Lu Ng & Carol T. Kulik - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    The inconsistent findings of past board diversity research demand a test of competing linear and curvilinear diversity–performance predictions. This research focuses on board age and gender diversity, and presents a positive linear prediction based on resource dependence theory, a negative linear prediction based on social identity theory, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear prediction based on the integration of resource dependence theory with social identity theory. The predictions were tested using archival data on 288 large organizations listed on the Australian Securities (...)
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  • Does Having Women Managers Lead to Increased Gender Equality Practices in Corporate Social Responsibility?Izaskun Larrieta-Rubín de Celis, Eva Velasco-Balmaseda, Sara Fernández de Bobadilla, María del Mar Alonso-Almeida & Gurutze Intxaurburu-Clemente - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (1):91-110.
    There is increasing interest in determining what impact having women in management positions may have on corporate social responsibility initiatives. Various authors suggest that gender equality practices should be factored into the broader framework of CSR. This paper examines how the presence of women on corporate boards, in top and middle management and as heads of CSR departments, influences gender equality practices in the field of CSR. Using information collected from companies that have signed up to Women's Empowerment Principles in (...)
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  • Does Female Representation on Boards of Directors Associate With Fortune's “100 Best Companies to Work For” List?Richard A. Bernardi, Susan M. Bosco & Katie M. Vassill - 2006 - Business and Society 45 (2):235-248.
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  • Board Diversity in the United Kingdom and Norway: An Exploratory Analysis.Johanne Grosvold, Stephen Brammer & Bruce Rayton - 2007 - Business Ethics: A European Review 16 (4):344-357.
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  • Board Composition and Corporate Social Responsibility: An Empirical Investigation in the Post Sarbanes-Oxley Era. [REVIEW]Jason Q. Zhang, Hong Zhu & Hung-bin Ding - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):381-392.
    Although the composition of the board of directors has important implications for different aspects of firm performance, prior studies tend to focus on financial performance. The effects of board composition on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance remain an under-researched area, particularly in the period following the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This article specifically examines two important aspects of board composition (i.e., the presence of outside directors and the presence of women directors) and their relationship with CSR (...)
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  • Hidden Connections: The Link Between Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW]Ioanna Boulouta - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):185-197.
    This study examines whether and how female board directors may affect corporate social performance (CSP) by drawing on social role theory and feminist ethics literature. The empirical analysis, based on a sample of 126 firms drawn from the S&P500 group of companies over a 5-year period, suggests that board gender diversity (BGD) significantly affects CSP. However, this impact depends on the social performance metric under investigation. In particular, more gender diverse boards exert stronger influence on CSP metrics focusing on ‘negative’ (...)
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  • Boardroom Diversity and its Effect on Social Performance: Conceptualization and Empirical Evidence. [REVIEW]Taïeb Hafsi & Gokhan Turgut - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):463-479.
    In this paper, we seek to answer two questions: (1) what does boardroom diversity stand for in the strategic management literature? And, (2) is there a significant relationship between boardroom diversity and corporate social performance. We first clarify the boardroom diversity concept, distinguishing between a structural diversity of boards and a demographic diversity in boards, and then we investigate its possible linkage to social performance in a sample of S&P500 firms. We find a significant relationship between diversity in boards and (...)
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  • Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance.Kevin Campbell & Antonio Mínguez-Vera - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):435-451.
    The monitoring role performed by the board of directors is an important corporate governance control mechanism, especially in countries where external mechanisms are less well developed. The gender composition of the board can affect the quality of this monitoring role and thus the financial performance of the firm. This is part of the “business case” for female participation on boards, though arguments may also be framed in terms of ethical considerations. While the issue of board gender diversity has attracted growing (...)
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  • Gender and Ethnic Diversity on Boards and Corporate Responsibility: The Case of the Arts Sector.Fara Azmat & Ruth Rentschler - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):317-336.
    This study provides insights on sector-specific characteristics, challenges and issues that affect corporate responsibility in relation to ethnicity and gender on arts boards. Using stakeholder theory, the study explores how arts board composition sets the scene for dynamics that affect CR. Data analysis is based on interviews with 92 board members and stakeholders sitting on 66 arts boards in Australia. Results suggest that the dynamism of gender and ethnic diversity on arts boards makes them responsive to CR; however, their presence (...)
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  • The Ultimate Glass Ceiling Revisited: The Presence of Women on Corporate Boards.Deborah E. Arfken, Stephanie L. Bellar & Marilyn M. Helms - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (2):177-186.
    Has the diversity of corporate boards of directors improved? Should it? What role does diversity play in reducing corporate wrongdoing? Will diversity result in a more focused board of directors or more board autonomy? Examining the state of Tennessee as a case study, the authors collected data on the board composition of publicly traded corporations and compared those data to an original study conducted in 1995. Data indicate only a modest improvement in board diversity. This article discusses reasons for the (...)
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  • Board Composition and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Diversity, Gender, Strategy and Decision Making.Kathyayini Rao & Carol Tilt - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):327-347.
    This paper aims to critically review the existing literature on the relationship between corporate governance, in particular board diversity, and both corporate social responsibility and corporate social responsibility reporting and to suggest some important avenues for future research in this field. Assuming that both CSR and CSRR are outcomes of boards’ decisions, this paper proposes that examining boards’ decision making processes with regard to CSR would provide more insight into the link between board diversity and CSR. Particularly, the paper stresses (...)
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  • Increasing the Number of Women on Boards: The Role of Actors and Processes.Cathrine Seierstad, Gillian Warner-Søderholm, Mariateresa Torchia & Morten Huse - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):289-315.
    Understanding the spread of national public policies to increase the percentage of women on boards is often presented using different types of institutional theory logic. However, the importance of the political games influencing these decisions has not received the same attention. In this article, we look beyond the institutional setting by focusing on the role of actors. We explore processes that include who the critical actors that drive and determine these policies are, and what motivates them to push for change. (...)
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  • Are Demographic Attributes and Firm Characteristics Drivers of Gender Diversity? Investigating Women’s Positions on French Boards of Directors.Mehdi Nekhili & Hayette Gatfaoui - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):227-249.
    In this article, we examine the factors determining the representation of women on boards of directors by considering three main questions. The first question deals with the relationship between characteristics of ownership and governance on one side, and female directorship on the other. The second major question concerns the demographic attributes of women directors, such as nationality, foreign experience, educational level, business expertise, and connections to external sources. The third important question refers to women in senior positions on French boards (...)
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  • Does Board Gender Diversity Have a Financial Impact? Evidence Using Stock Portfolio Performance.Larelle Chapple & Jacquelyn E. Humphrey - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (4):1-15.
    There is growing regulatory pressure on firms worldwide to address the under-representation of women in senior positions. Regulators have taken a variety of approaches to the issue. We investigate a jurisdiction that has issued recommendations and disclosure requirements, rather than implementing quotas. Much of the rhetoric surrounding gender diversity centres on whether diversity has a financial impact. In this paper we take an aggregate (market-level) approach and compare the performance of portfolios of firms with gender diverse boards to those without. (...)
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  • Appointing Women to Boards: Is There a Cultural Bias?Amalia Carrasco, Claude Francoeur, Réal Labelle, Joaquina Laffarga & Emiliano Ruiz-Barbadillo - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (2):429-444.
    Companies that are serious about corporate governance and business ethics are turning their attention to gender diversity at the most senior levels of business . Board gender diversity has been the subject of several studies carried out by international organizations such as Catalyst , the World Economic Forum , and the European Board Diversity Analysis . They all lead to reports confirming the overall relatively low proportion of women on boards and the slow pace at which more women are being (...)
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  • Board Diversity and Corporate Social Responsibility.Maretno Harjoto, Indrarini Laksmana & Robert Lee - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):641-660.
    This study examines the impact of board diversity on firms’ corporate social responsibility performance. Using seven different measures of board diversity across 1,489 U.S. firms from 1999 to 2011, the study finds that board diversity is positively associated with CSR performance. Board diversity is associated with a greater number of areas in which CSR is strong and a fewer number of areas in which CSR is a concern. These findings support the stakeholder theory and are consistent with the view that (...)
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  • The Impact of Board Diversity and Gender Composition on Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Reputation.Stephen Bear, Noushi Rahman & Corinne Post - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):207 - 221.
    This article explores how the diversity of board resources and the number of women on boards affect firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings, and how, in turn, CSR influences corporate reputation. In addition, this article examines whether CSR ratings mediate the relationships among board resource diversity, gender composition, and corporate reputation. The OLS regression results using lagged data for independent and control variables were statistically significant for the gender composition hypotheses, but not for the resource diversitybased hypotheses. CSR ratings had (...)
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  • Gender Diversity in Corporate Governance and Top Management.Claude Francoeur, Réal Labelle & Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):83-95.
    This article examines whether and how the participation of women in the firm’s board of directors and senior management enhances financial performance. We use the Fama and French (1992, 1993) valuation framework to take the level of risk into consideration, when comparing firm performances, whereas previous studies used either raw stock returns or accounting ratios. Our results indicate that firms operating in complex environments do generate positive and significant abnormal returns when they have a high proportion of women officers. Although (...)
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  • Contrasting Corporate Profiles: Women and Minority Representation in Top Management Positions.Gerald E. Fryxell & Linda D. Lerner - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (5):341 - 352.
    This paper investigates the characteristics of firms which have underrepresented groups in top management positions and those which do not. It is argued that profiles of these characteristics will be different for firms with minorities vs. women and that these profiles will be different depending on whether representation is by board membership or through officerships. A discriminant analysis found both similarities and differences in variables that were associated with these different forms of representation. It was found, for example, that size (...)
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  • Women in Corporate Management.Ronald J. Burke - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (9):873-875.
    This introductory article positions the Special Issue devoted to women in corporate management. Women in all developing countries face a glass ceiling to advancement to senior management in medium and large organizations. It then reviews the eight manuscripts in the collection, integrating women in management themes into the mainstream of business ethics.
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  • Female Presence on Corporate Boards: A Multi-Country Study of Environmental Context.Siri Terjesen & Val Singh - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):55-63.
    A growing body of ethics research investigates gender diversity and governance on corporate boards, at individual and firm levels, in single country studies. In this study, we explore the environmental context of female representation on corporate boards of directors, using data from 43 countries. We suggest that women's representation on corporate boards may be shaped by the larger environment, including the social, political and economic structures of individual countries. We use logit regression to conduct our analysis. Our results indicate that (...)
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  • Board Gender Quotas: Exploring Ethical Tensions From A Multi-Theoretical Perspective.Siri Terjesen & Ruth Sealy - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (1):23-65.
    ABSTRACT:Despite 40 years of equal opportunities policies and more than two decades of government and organization initiatives aimed at helping women reach the upper echelons of the corporate world, women are seriously underrepresented on corporate boards. Recently, fifteen countries sought to redress this imbalance by introducing gender quotas for board representation. The introduction of board gender quota legislation creates ethical tensions and dilemmas which we categorize in terms of motivations, legitimacy, and outcomes. We investigate these tensions through four overarching theoretical (...)
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  • Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Response to Sustainability Initiatives: Evidence From the Carbon Disclosure Project.Walid Ben-Amar, Millicent Chang & Philip McIlkenny - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (2):369-383.
    This paper investigates the effect of female representation on the board of directors on corporate response to stakeholders’ demands for increased public reporting about climate change-related risks. We rely on the Carbon Disclosure Project as a sustainability initiative supported by institutional investors. Greenhouse gas emissions measurement and its disclosure to investors can be thought of as a first step toward addressing climate change issues and reducing the firm’s carbon footprint. Based on a sample of publicly listed Canadian firms over the (...)
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  • New Rationales for Women on Boards.B. Choudhury - 2014 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 34 (3):511-542.
    Should measures promoting women to corporate boards be solely justified in terms of economic arguments? Traditionally, such measures have tended to rely on utilitarian arguments, despite the fact that the most prominent of these arguments—the relationship between women’s presence on boards and firm financial performance—is equivocal. Conversely, this article argues that rationales for increasing women on boards should be based on both equality and economics grounds. An equality rationale is necessary as it clarifies the underlying issues which have given rise (...)
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  • Women on Corporate Boards: A Comparative Institutional Analysis.Stephen Brammer, Bruce Rayton & Johanne Grosvold - 2016 - Business and Society 55 (8):1157-1196.
    How do a country’s basic institutions enable or hinder women’s rise to the boards of public companies? The study evaluates this question with reference to the five basic institutions that research suggests are common across all countries: family, education, economy, government, and religion. The study draws on a sample, which consists of 23 countries, and the study is framed in neo-institutional theory. In analyzing the role of these institutions, the article seeks to understand better the relationships between specific institutions and (...)
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