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  1. Visual Evoked Response Correlates of Unconscious Mental Processes.Howard Shevrin & D. E. Fritzler - 1968 - Science 161:295-298.
  • Subliminal Unconscious Conflict Alpha Power Inhibits Supraliminal Conscious Symptom Experience.Howard Shevrin, Michael Snodgrass, Linda A. W. Brakel, Ramesh Kushwaha, Natalia L. Kalaida & Ariane Bazan - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a (...)
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  • The Interpretation of Dreams.Sigmund Freud & A. A. Brill - 1900 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 10 (20):551-555.
  • Event-Related Potential Indicators of the Dynamic Unconscious.Howard Shevrin, W. J. Williams, R. E. Marshall & Linda A. Brakel - 1992 - Consciousness and Cognition 1 (3):340-66.
    The present study applies a new method for investigating dynamic unconscious processes. The method consists of selection of words from patient interview and test protocols that in the clinicians' judgments capture the patients' conscious symptom experience and the hypothetical unconscious conflict related to the symptom, subliminal and supraliminal presentation of these words, signal analysis of event-related potentials obtained to the word presentations. Eight phobics and three patients suffering from pathological grief reactions served as subjects. A time-frequency ERP analysis revealed that (...)
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  • The Mediation of Intentional Judgments by Unconscious Perceptions: The Influences of Task Strategy, Task Preference, Word Meaning, and Motivation.Michael Snodgrass, Howard Shevrin & Michael Kopka - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):169-193.
    In two experiments subjects attempted to identify words presented below the objective threshold using two task strategies emphasizing either allowing a word to pop into their heads or looking carefully at the stimulus field . Words were selected to represent both meaningful and structural dimensions. We also asked subjects to indicate their strategy preference and to rate their motivation to perform well. In the absence of conscious perception, both strategy preference and word meaning interacted with strategy condition, mediating the accuracy (...)
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  • Perception Below the Objective Threshold?Mark Van Selst & Philip M. Merikle - 1993 - Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):194-203.
    The experiments reported by Snodgrass, Shevrin, and Kopka appear to demonstrate that words are perceived even when overall forced-choice discrimination performance does not deviate from chance. We replicated their critical finding in two separate experiments; our results indicated that the subjects′ preferences for one of the two strategy conditions predicted significant deviations from chance performance in the pop condition, even though the overall performance in this condition did not differ from chance. In addition, we found that task preference had no (...)
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  • Unconscious Inhibition and Facilitation at the Objective Detection Threshold: Replicable and Qualitatively Different Unconscious Perceptual.Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin - 2006 - Cognition 101 (1):43-79.