Argumentation 4 (3):269-298 (1990)

Abstract
In this article it is argued that a complex model that includes Toulmin's functional account of argument, the pragma-dialectical stage analysis of argumentation offered by the Amsterdam School, and criteria developed in critical thinking theory, can be used to account for the normativity and field-dependence of argumentation in science. A pragma-dialectical interpretation of the four main elements of Toulmin's model, and a revised account of the double role of warrants, illuminates the domain specificity of scientific argumentation and the restrictions to which the confrontation and opening stages of scientific critical discussions are subjected. In regard to the argumentation stage, examples are given to show that a general account of argumentation, as advocated by informal logicians, is not applicable to arguments in science. Furthermore, although patterns of inference differ in various scientific practices, deductive validity is argued to be a crucial notion in the assessment of scientific arguments. Finally, some remarks are made concerning the burden of proof and the concluding stage of scientific argumentation
Keywords Argumentation  science  Stephen Toulmin  pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation  field-dependency  stage analysis  relevance  generalization  deductive validity
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DOI 10.1007/BF00173968
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References found in this work BETA

How the Laws of Physics Lie.Nancy Cartwright - 1983 - Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
The Uses of Argument.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1958 - Cambridge University Press.
The Mismeasure of Man.Stephen Jay Gould - 1981 - W.W. Norton and Company.

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