History of the Human Sciences 20 (3):65-83 (2007)

Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that hoping is an integral part of what it is to be human. The present article strives to make sense of the myriad competing conceptions of hope that have emerged over the past half-century. Two problems with the literature are highlighted. First, discussions of hope tend to take place within rather than between disciplines. Second, hope is often taken to be an undifferentiated experience. In order to address the first problem, the article takes an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on research from the fields of philosophy, anthropology, psychology, theology and politics. In order to address the second problem, the article proposes that hope be regarded as a human universal that can be experienced in different modes. A variety of theories and models of hope are discussed, including those offered by Marcel, Dauenhauer, Bloch, Moltmann, Bovens, Pettit, Snyder, Rorty and Gutiérrez. While many of these claim to have identified the characteristics of hope, it is argued that each captures something about a particular mode of hoping. The theories and models are integrated into a framework comprising five modes of hoping: patient, critical, estimative, resolute and utopian. Examining hope in this way, as a human universal that can be experienced in different modes, may help us see the varying conceptions that presently exist within the human sciences not as conflicting, nor even as competing, but rather as complementary.
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DOI 10.1177/0952695107079335
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References found in this work BETA

Philosophy and Social Hope.Richard Rorty - 1999 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 58 (3):714-716.
The Value of Hope.Luc Bovens - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):667-681.
Ideology and Utopia.Paul Arthur Schilpp - 1940 - Philosophical Review 49 (2):265-268.

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Citations of this work BETA

What is It to Lose Hope?Matthew Ratcliffe - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):597-614.
Understanding Complicity: Memory, Hope and the Imagination.Mihaela Mihai - 2019 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (5):504-522.
Hope as an Intellectual Virtue?Aaron D. Cobb - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (3):269-285.
Pragmatism, Utopia and Anti-Utopia.Ruth Levitas - 2008 - Critical Horizons 9 (1):42-59.

View all 10 citations / Add more citations

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The Art of Good Hope.Victoria McGeer - 2004 - Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1):100--127.
Hope and its Place in Mind.Phillip Pettit - 2004 - Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (1):152--165.
The Value of Hope.Luc Bovens - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):667-681.
Hope and Critical Theory.Nicholas Smith - 2005 - Critical Horizons 6 (1):45-61.
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Forgiving and Hoping.David T. Ozar - 2008 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 82:163-172.

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