Cognitive Science 40 (2):481-495 (2016)

Reasoning about bedrock abstract concepts such as time, number, and valence relies on spatial metaphor and often on multiple spatial metaphors for a single concept. Previous research has documented, for instance, both future-in-front and future-to-right metaphors for time in English speakers. It is often assumed that these metaphors, which appear to have distinct experiential bases, remain distinct in online temporal reasoning. In two studies we demonstrate that, contra this assumption, people systematically combine these metaphors. Evidence for this combination was found in both directly elicited and spontaneous co-speech gestures about time. These results provide first support for the hypothesis that the metaphorical representation of time, and perhaps other abstract domains as well, involves the continuous co-activation of multiple metaphors rather than the selection of only one
Keywords Gesture  Metaphor  Communication  Time
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/cogs.12254
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 72,634
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Metaphors We Live By.George Lakoff & Mark Johnson - 1980 - University of Chicago Press.
The Career of Metaphor.Brian F. Bowdle & Dedre Gentner - 2005 - Psychological Review 112 (1):193-216.
The Tangle of Space and Time in Human Cognition.Rafael Núñez & Kensy Cooperrider - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (5):220-229.

View all 9 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

View all 7 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

More About Metaphor.Max Black - 1977 - Dialectica 31 (3‐4):431-457.
Kant’s Metaphors for Persons and Community.Diana E. Axelsen - 1989 - Philosophy and Theology 3 (4):301-321.
The Inadequacy of Paraphrase is the Dogma of Metaphor.Mark Phelan - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (4):481-506.
Justice ‘Under’ Law: The Bodily Incarnation of Legal Conceptions Over Time.Stefan Larsson - 2014 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 27 (4):613-626.
Language, Speakers, and Metaphor.James Allman - 1998 - Dissertation, Duke University
Feminist Ethics and the Metaphor of AIDS.Susan Sherwin - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (4):343 – 364.
Conceptual Metaphors of Affect.L. Elizabeth Crawford - 2009 - Emotion Review 1 (2):129-139.
Metaphors for Illness in Contemporary Media.M. Hanne & S. J. Hawken - 2007 - Medical Humanities 33 (2):93-99.
Metaphors We Live By.George Lakoff & Mark Johnson - 1980 - University of Chicago Press.


Added to PP index

Total views
25 ( #460,465 of 2,533,666 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #389,210 of 2,533,666 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes