Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (1):45 – 78 (2003)

Authors
Berit Brogaard
University of Miami
Barry Smith
State University of New York, Buffalo
Abstract
When does a human being begin to exist? We argue that it is possible, through a combination of biological fact and philosophical analysis, to provide a definitive answer to this question. We lay down a set of conditions for being a human being, and we determine when, in the course of normal fetal development, these conditions are first satisfied. Issues dealt with along the way include: modes of substance-formation, twinning, the nature of the intra-uterine environment, and the nature of the relation between fetus and mother (connection, parthood, dependence).
Keywords Human development  embryontology  pregnancy  environment  niche  fetus
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DOI 10.1076/jmep.28.1.45.14172
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Were You a Part of Your Mother?Elselijn Kingma - 2019 - Mind 128 (511):609-646.
Brain Death as the End of a Human Organism as a Self-Moving Whole.Adam Omelianchuk - 2021 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 46 (5):530-560.
Lady Parts: The Metaphysics of Pregnancy.Elselijn Kingma - 2018 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 82:165-187.
If Abortion, Then Infanticide.David B. Hershenov & Rose J. Hershenov - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (5):387-409.

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