Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):367-447 (1994)

Abstract
A number of ways of taxonomizing human learning have been proposed. We examine the evidence for one such proposal, namely, that there exist independent explicit and implicit learning systems. This combines two further distinctions, (1) between learning that takes place with versus without concurrent awareness, and (2) between learning that involves the encoding of instances (or fragments) versus the induction of abstract rules or hypotheses. Implicit learning is assumed to involve unconscious rule learning. We examine the evidence for implicit learning derived from subliminal learning, conditioning, artificial grammar learning, instrumental learning, and reaction times in sequence learning. We conclude that unconscious learning has not been satisfactorily established in any of these areas. The assumption that learning in some of these tasks (e.g., artificial grammar learning) is predominantly based on rule abstraction is questionable. When subjects cannot report the rules that govern stimulus selection, this is often because their knowledge consists of instances or fragments of the training stimuli rather than rules. In contrast to the distinction between conscious and unconscious learning, the distinction between instance and rule learning is a sound and meaningful way of taxonomizing human learning. We discuss various computational models of these two forms of learning
Keywords artificial grammar   categorization   connectionism   consciousness   explicit/implicit processes   instances   learning   memory   rules
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DOI 10.1017/s0140525x00035032
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References found in this work BETA

The Principles of Psychology.William James - 1890 - London, England: Dover Publications.
What is It Like to Be a Bat?Thomas Nagel - 1974 - Philosophical Review 83 (October):435-50.
Elements of Episodic Memory.Endel Tulving - 1983 - Oxford University Press.

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Citations of this work BETA

A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge.Zoltan Dienes & Josef Perner - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
Implicit Learning: News From the Front.Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Maud Boyer - 1998 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.

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