Peirce and Łukasiewicz on modal and multi-valued logics

Synthese 200 (4):1-18 (2022)
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Abstract

Charles Peirce incorporates modality into his Existential Graphs by introducing the broken cut for possible falsity. Although it can be adapted to various modern modal logics, Zeman demonstrates that making no other changes results in a version that he calls Gamma-MR, an implementation of Jan Łukasiewicz's four-valued Ł-modal system. It disallows the assertion of necessity, reflecting a denial of determinism, and has theorems involving possibility that seem counterintuitive at first glance. However, the latter is a misconception that arises from overlooking the distinction between the intermediate truth values that are assigned to possibly true propositions as either X-contingent or Y-contingent. Any two propositions having the same ITV are possible together, while any two propositions having different ITVs, including those that are each other's negation, are possible individually yet not possible together. Porte shows that Ł-modal can be translated into classical logic by defining a constant for each ITV such that its implication of another proposition asserts the latter's possibility, while its conjunction with another proposition asserts the latter's necessity. These are expressed in the Alpha part of EG without broken cuts, simplifying derivations and shedding further light on Łukasiewicz's system, as long as graphs including either of the constants are properly interpreted. Ł-modal and Gamma-MR thus capture the two-sided nature of possibility as the limit between truth and falsity in Peirce's triadic conception.

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An Introduction to Modal Logic.George Edward Hughes & M. J. Cresswell - 1968 - London, England: Methuen. Edited by M. J. Cresswell.
Time and modality.A. N. Prior - 1957 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 148:114-115.
Selected works.Jan Łukasiewicz - 1970 - Amsterdam,: North-Holland Pub. Co.. Edited by Ludwik Borkowski.

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