Beyond the Sociobiological Dilemma: Social Emotions and the Evolution of Morality

Zygon 42 (3):685-700 (2007)
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Abstract

Is morality biologically altruistic? Does it imply a disadvantage in the struggle for existence? A positive answer puts morality at odds with natural selection, unless natural selection operates at the level of groups. In this case, a trait that is good for groups though bad for individuals can evolve. Sociobiologists reject group selection and have adopted one of two horns of a dilemma. Either morality is based on an egoistic calculus, compatible with natural selection; or morality continues tied to psychological and biological altruism but not as a product of natural selection. The dilemma denies a third possibility—that psychological altruism evolves as a biologically selfish trait. I discuss the classical treatments of the paradox by Charles Darwin and Robert Trivers, focusing on the role they attribute to social emotions. The upshot is that both Darwin and Trivers sketch a natural-selection process relying on innate emotional mechanisms that render morality adaptive for individuals as well as for groups. I give additional reasons for viewing it as a form of natural, instead of only cultural, selection

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Citations of this work

The Evolution of Contractual Morality.Alejandro Rosas - 2011 - Ideas Y Valores 60 (147):209–222.
Altruism and the golden rule.Jonathan Goodman - 2014 - Zygon 49 (2):381-395.

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References found in this work

Leviathan.Thomas Hobbes - 1651 - Harmondsworth,: Penguin Books. Edited by C. B. Macpherson.
Philosophy of Biology.Elliott Sober - 1993 - Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

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