Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1491-1497 (2012)

Abstract
Self-recognition by 86 children was assessed using the mirror mark test in two different social contexts. In the classic mirror task condition, only the child was marked prior to mirror exposure . In the social norm condition, the child, experimenter, and accompanying parent were marked prior to the child’s mirror exposure . Results indicate that in both conditions children pass the test in comparable proportion, with the same increase as a function of age. However, in the Norm condition, children displayed significantly more hesitation while removing the mark, often touching it without removing it or, if so, promptly putting the mark back onto their forehead. In the Classic condition, only one child showed such hesitation. These results suggest that from the outset, mirror self-recognition can refer to social awareness. This link is interpreted as the trademark of human self-consciousness, a deeply rooted “looking glass” self-awareness
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DOI 10.1016/j.concog.2012.04.007
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References found in this work BETA

Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition.G. G. Gallup - 1970 - Science 167:86-87.
The Uncanny Mirror: A Re-Framing of Mirror Self-Experience.Philippe Rochat & Dan Zahavi - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):204-213.
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The Development of Consciousness.Philip David Zelazo, Helena Hong Gao & Rebecca Todd - 2007 - In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press. pp. 405-432.

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Citations of this work BETA

The Nature of Visual Self-Recognition.Thomas Suddendorf & David L. Butler - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):121-127.
The Puzzle of Mirror Self-Recognition.Johannes Brandl - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (2):279-304.
Self-Conscious Roots of Human Normativity.Philippe Rochat - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (4):741-753.

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