Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):107-127 (2010)

Abstract
Through a convenience sample of 260 employees, the study shows how employees' perceptions about corporate citizenship (CC) predict their affective commitment. The study was carried out in Portugal, a high in-group and low societal collectivistic culture. Maignan et al.' s (1999 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 27(4), 455-469) construct, including economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilities was used. The main findings are: (a) contrary to what has been presumed in the literature, the discretionary dimension includes two factors: CC toward employees and toward community; (b) perceptions of CC explain 35% of unique variance of affective commitment; (c) the best predictors are perceptions of economic and legal CC and, mainly, perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees; (d) the perceptions of discretionary CC toward employees are significantly better predictors of affective commitment than are perceptions of economic, ethical, and discretionary CC toward the community; (e) perceived inconsistency of the several CC dimensions is detrimental to employees' affective commitment. The study questions the four-dimensional model of the CC construct as operationalized by Maignan et al., suggests that culture should be included as a moderating variable in future research, and stresses that affective commitment may decrease when employees perceive that their organizations act upon the several areas of CC inconsistently
Keywords Philosophy   Quality of Life Research   Management/Business for Professionals   Economic Growth   Ethics
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DOI 10.1007/s10551-009-0252-4
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The Four Faces of Corporate Citizenship.Archie B. Carroll - 1998 - Business and Society Review 100 (1):1-7.

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