Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (4):313-370 (2007)

Idealism is the core of the Pratyabhijñã philosophy: the main goal of Utpaladeva (fl. c. 925–950 AD) and of his commentator Abhinavagupta (fl. c. 975–1025 AD) is to establish that nothing exists outside of consciousness. In the course of their demonstration, these Śaiva philosophers endeavour to distinguish their idealism from that of a rival system, the Buddhist Vijñānavāda. This article aims at examining the concept of otherness (paratva) as it is presented in the Pratyabhijñā philosophy in contrast with that of the Vijñānavādins’. Although, according to the Pratyabhijñā, the other subjects are not ultimately real since all subjects are nothing but limited manifestations of a single absolute subject, the fact that we are aware of their existence in the practical world has to be accounted for. The Vijñānavādins explain it by arguing the we infer the others’ existence. The Pratyabhijñā philosophers, while refuting their opponents’ reasoning as it is expounded in Dharmakīrti’s Santānāntarasiddhi, develop a particulary original analysis of our awareness of the others, stating that this awareness is neither a perception (pratyakṣa) nor an inference (anumāna), but rather a guess (ūha) in which we sense the others’ freedom (svātantrya).
Keywords Pratyabhijñā – Utpaladeva – Abhinavagupta  Vijñānavāda – Dignāga – Dharmakīrti  Otherness – Idealism – Solipsism  Self-awareness – Svasaṃvedana  Action – Kriyā  Freedom – Svātantrya  Inférence – Anumāna – Kāryahetu – Svabhāvahetu
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1007/s10781-007-9017-5
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 70,337
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

L'Etre et le Néant.J. Sartre - 1946 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 1 (1):75-78.
Buddhist Logic.E. B. & Th Stcherbatsky - 1964 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 84 (4):490.

View all 9 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

The Two Pratyabhijñā Theories of Error.John Nemec - 2012 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (2):225-257.

View all 12 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles


Added to PP index

Total views
60 ( #190,390 of 2,508,104 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #416,711 of 2,508,104 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes