Journal of Indian Philosophy 35 (4):313-370 (2007)

Abstract
Idealism is the core of the Pratyabhijñã philosophy: the main goal of Utpaladeva (fl. c. 925–950 AD) and of his commentator Abhinavagupta (fl. c. 975–1025 AD) is to establish that nothing exists outside of consciousness. In the course of their demonstration, these Śaiva philosophers endeavour to distinguish their idealism from that of a rival system, the Buddhist Vijñānavāda. This article aims at examining the concept of otherness (paratva) as it is presented in the Pratyabhijñā philosophy in contrast with that of the Vijñānavādins’. Although, according to the Pratyabhijñā, the other subjects are not ultimately real since all subjects are nothing but limited manifestations of a single absolute subject, the fact that we are aware of their existence in the practical world has to be accounted for. The Vijñānavādins explain it by arguing the we infer the others’ existence. The Pratyabhijñā philosophers, while refuting their opponents’ reasoning as it is expounded in Dharmakīrti’s Santānāntarasiddhi, develop a particulary original analysis of our awareness of the others, stating that this awareness is neither a perception (pratyakṣa) nor an inference (anumāna), but rather a guess (ūha) in which we sense the others’ freedom (svātantrya).
Keywords Pratyabhijñā – Utpaladeva – Abhinavagupta  Vijñānavāda – Dignāga – Dharmakīrti  Otherness – Idealism – Solipsism  Self-awareness – Svasaṃvedana  Action – Kriyā  Freedom – Svātantrya  Inférence – Anumāna – Kāryahetu – Svabhāvahetu
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DOI 10.1007/s10781-007-9017-5
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References found in this work BETA

L'Etre et le Néant.J. Sartre - 1946 - Les Etudes Philosophiques 1 (1):75-78.
Buddhist Logic.E. B. & Th Stcherbatsky - 1964 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 84 (4):490.

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The Two Pratyabhijñā Theories of Error.John Nemec - 2012 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (2):225-257.

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