Discovery as the context of any scientific justification

Man and World 22 (4):471-484 (1989)
  Copy   BIBTEX

Abstract

The analysis of philosophically important themes can depart from two different angles. The first one investigates the various answers that have been given to a certain issue, like that of the problem of knowledge, the justification of theories, the notion of culture, etcetera. These answers are often mutually contradictory which, by the way, facilitates their overview (like the schemes of rationalism-empiricism, justification-discovery, universalism-relativism). A second approach starts from the problems (or: “problematique”) behind the divergent answers (e.g., foundationalism behind both, empiricism and rationalism).In the following sections the issue of discovery is discussed. Here the second line of approach has been followed, not only by making visible a same problematique, but more by trying to set out the common context of the discussion about context of discovery and context of justification. The idea is that this discussion, or better the shift taking place in that discussion, finds its reason in a context in which the distance between traditional methodology and contemporary scientific practice, also between scientific knowledge and the experience of reality has become greater. This is related to the deepening awareness of the cultural context of scientific method. Man and world, scientific method and cultural context are always interacting.From this point of view quite different philosophical approaches show nevertheless similar features pointing to new solutions. A more psychological approach to scientific method (like: Gordon's and Grmek's, even perhaps Gutting's reinterpretation of Popper) and a sociological one (e.g., Barnes, Bloor, and already Durkheim) are opposed to a more logically structured analysis of Nagel, Hempel, and also Popper. Nevertheless the view on the flexibility of scientific method defended along different lines by for instance Achinstein, Bachelard, Hesse, Piaget, Polanyi, Toulmin manifests a certain convergence in those divergent standpoints, the more so since often the cultural context of science is being stressed (e.g., Ladriére, Prigogine, Needham).The miscellany of philosophical orientations, presented in the following sections, can in this way perhaps give profile to deeper tendencies: to relate again scientific method to the context of culture and of human strategy in general. This does not blend, however, the distinction between context of justification and context of discovery. By changing their roles a new overview of this dilemma becomes possible. There is no juxtaposition of both, nor has the one to be absorbed by the other. The conclusion will be that there are still two contexts, but that one is wider, less defined and demarcated from the wider field of daily culture, and that the other is more restricted, functioning as a kind of safetydevice on behalf of the wider strategy of discovery. In such a way discovery is regarded as the wider context of the more restricted context of justification

Links

PhilArchive



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 74,509

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

Conventionalism, Scientific Discovery and the Sociology of Knowledge.Angelo M. Petroni - 1993 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7 (3):225 – 240.
Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery?Mehul Shah - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.
Context of Discovery and Context of Justification.Paul Hoyningen-Huene - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (4):501-515.
Finite Axiomatizability and Scientific Discovery.Daniel N. Osherson & Scott Weinstein - 1988 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:409 - 412.
Positive Science and Discoverability.Thomas Nickles - 1984 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:13 - 27.

Analytics

Added to PP
2013-01-25

Downloads
25 (#459,806)

6 months
1 (#417,896)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Citations of this work

No citations found.

Add more citations

References found in this work

Rationality.Charles Taylor - 1982 - In Martin Hollis & Steven Lukes (eds.), Rationality and Relativism. MIT Press. pp. 87--105.
Discovery and Rule-Books.Peter Achinstein - 1980 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 34 (1):109.
Science as Discovery.Gary Gutting - 1980 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 131 (1):26-48.
Science as Discovery.Gary Gutting - 1980 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 34 (131/132):26.

Add more references