On Ehrenfeucht-fraïssé equivalence of linear orderings

Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (1):65-73 (1990)
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C. Karp has shown that if α is an ordinal with ω α = α and A is a linear ordering with a smallest element, then α and $\alpha \bigotimes A$ are equivalent in L ∞ω up to quantifer rank α. This result can be expressed in terms of Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé games where player ∀ has to make additional moves by choosing elements of a descending sequence in α. Our aim in this paper is to prove a similar result for Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé games of length ω 1 . One implication of such a result will be that a certain infinite quantifier language cannot say that a linear ordering has no descending ω 1 -sequences (when the alphabet contains only one binary relation symbol). Connected work is done by Hyttinen and Oikkonen in [H] and [O]



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