Learning From Surprise: Harnessing a Metacognitive Surprise Signal to Build and Adapt Belief Networks

Topics in Cognitive Science 11 (1):164-177 (2019)
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This paper considers how surprise (or its lack) can be cast as a metacognitive signal with an adaptive function in learning new knowledge and revising belief networks. It reviews the phenomena that may hinder this signal (e.g., hindsight bias) and argues for its extrinsic exploitation in instructional and educational contexts by educators, journalists and parents, who might train learners to internalize the use of surprise to drive explanation‐based learning.



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