O zmysłach i postrzeganiu–czyli czego nie wiemy o Berkeleyu, a dowiadujemy się od Smitha i vice versa

Filo-Sofija 12 (17):147-154 (2012)
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OF SENSES AND PERCEPTION—WHAT SMITH TELLS US ABOUT BERKELEY AND VICE VERSA Adam Smith’s epistemology, described primarily in the essay Of the External Senses, was strongly inspired by George Berkeley’s thought expressed in his New Theory of Vision (1709). Both philosophers distinguished between the Objects of Sight and the Objects of Touch and analyzed the perception of distance between objects and size of objects (Berkeley’s thorough analysis was limited to the sense of sight, whereas Smith described also the features of other senses.). They also noticed the observer’s role in the process. Both philosophers made a parallel between their epistemology and moral/ social theories. However, their conclusions turned out to be quite different, despite some similarities in their views on the problem of external senses. Smith focused on the issue of sympathy and the Impartial Spectator, and underlined the fact that our moral judgements are strongly altered by our relation to those who are judged and that we learn how to give opinions on the basis of how others judge our behaviour. Berkeley, on the other hand, focused on the role of laws and reason in both epistemological and moral judgements. Keywords: ADAM SMITH, GEORGE BERKELEY, EPISTEMOLOGY, MORAL/SOCIAL THEORIES



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Anna Markwart
Nicolaus Copernicus University

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