Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 9 (1):79-120 (2014)
AbstractThis paper studies the history of teleological thought in Antiquity, after Aristotle, analyzing three relevant episodes: the contribution of Theophrastus – a companion and successor of Aristotle; Stoicism, as described by Cicero in his work On the nature of gods; and Galen’s anatomical and physiological works, especially his book On the utility of the parts of the human body. This analysis exhibits the broad diversity of views concerning final causes in Antiquity, all of them widely different from Aristotle’s one, and the strong influence of theological concerns in some of those philosophers – such as the Stoics and Galen.
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Cicero's Tusculan Disputations (Also, Treatises on the Nature of the Gods, and on the Commonwealth). Cicero - unknown