Peirce introduced Existential Graphs in late 1896, and they were systematically investigated in his 1903 Lowell Lectures. Alpha graphs for classical propositional logic constitute the first part of EGs. The second and the third parts are the beta graphs for first-order logic and the gamma graphs for modal and higher-order logics, among others. As a logical syntax, EGs are two-dimensional graphs, or diagrams, in contrast to the linear algebraic notations. Peirce's theory of EGs is not only a theory of logical syntax but also a proof theory for many logics. A set of transformation rules of graphs defines a proof system for a graphical logic. In this...
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DOI 10.2979/trancharpeirsoc.54.3.02
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