Les temps de l'historien et du sociologue: Retour sur la dispute Braudel-Gurvitch

Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 2 (119):197-222 (2005)
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Abstract

La dispute récurrente entre Braudel et Gurvitch a pris une nouvelle tournure en 1958 lorsque chacun explicita son approche des temps. Braudel estime que sa distinction entre trois durées historiques devrait offrir un cadre épistémologique et méthodologique commun aux sciences sociales, sociologie comprise. La typologie des temps sociaux de Gurvitch ne lui semble pas opératoire : elle est trop qualitative. Gurvitch lui répond que réalité et temps historiques se rapportent à des genres particuliers de temps sociaux, qualitatifs-quantitatifs, discontinus-continus... L’étude de ces derniers confirmerait que l’historien et le sociologue ne peuvent concevoir de la même manière leur objet et leur méthode. Esquisse d’une analyse critique.The recurrent debate between Braudel and Gurvitch was given a new development in 1958, when both of them clarified their definition of time. In Braudel’s mind the distinction he made between three different historical times offered a common epistemological and methodological framework for social sciences, including sociology. For Braudel, Gurvitch’s typification of time in terms of social times seemed to be unoperative : it is too qualitative. Gurvitch replied to him that historical reality and historical times referred to specific types of social times : qualitative-quantitative, discontinuous-continuous... The study of these types would confirm that the historian and the sociologist do not conceive their object and their method in the same way. The article sketches a critical analysis of the question

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