Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):771-789 (2008)

One challenge that globalization has brought to business is that firms, as they expand their market globally through cross-border alliances, need to deal with partner firms from countries of different religious background. The impact of a country’s dominant religion on its firms’ international market entry mode choices has not been examined in traditional approaches. Focusing on hypothesizing the influence of Christian beliefs and atheism (i.e., the absence of belief in any deities), this research aims to fill the gap by exploring religion’s role in providing moral restraint on managers’ propensity for opportunism, which in turn affects these managers’ choices of their firms’ international market entry via non-equity alliances or joint ventures. A study of 22,156 cross-border alliances formed in 48 industries world-wide over 9 years provides new insight toward understanding religion’s influence on firms’ international market entry mode decisions through the ethical dimension of strategic leadership.
Keywords alliance  business ethics  entry mode  joint venture  opportunism  religion  transaction cost economics
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DOI 10.1007/s10551-007-9468-3
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The Theory of Moral Sentiments.Adam Smith - 1759 - Dover Publications.

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Do Religious Norms Influence Corporate Debt Financing?Jay Cai & Guifeng Shi - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (1):159-182.

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