In Nora Schleich (ed.), Philosophie als Wissenschaft. Hildesheim, Deutschland: Olms. pp. 113-133 (2021)

Jens Lemanski
Fernuniversität Hagen
The paper entitled "Knowledge, Science, and Science of Knowledge" uses two relevant texts from German idealism to ask whether philosophy is a science. It is first argued that science presupposes knowledge, but that the concept of knowledge has long been subject to strong scepticism due to Fitch's paradox of knowability and especially the Gettier problem. Only in recent years have historians of philosophy made it clear that the so-called standard analysis of knowledge was not even advocated by many classical authors. This is also the case with the texts under investigation: Fichte's early Wissenschaftslehre and Schopenhauer's Berlin Lectures. Both texts argue for a very different concept of knowledge, which then also determines the concept of science and philosophy. Fichte argues that philosophy must be founded from axioms and is therefore a subordinating science. Schopenhauer argues against this and points out that philosophy can only be a coordinating science. The last part of the paper argues that Fichte's and Schopenhauer's definitions of philosophy as a coordinating or subordinating science can still be applied today.
Keywords Gettier problem  standard analysis of knowledge  axiomatic reasoning  diagrammatic reasoning  knowledge
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