Jack M. C. Kwong
Appalachian State University
In order to better understand the topic of hope, this paper argues that two separate theories are needed: One for hoping, and the other for hopefulness. This bifurcated approach is warranted by the observation that the word ‘hope’ is polysemous: It is sometimes used to refer to hoping and sometimes, to feeling or being hopeful. Moreover, these two senses of 'hope' are distinct, as a person can hope for some outcome yet not simultaneously feel hopeful about it. I argue that this distinction between hoping and hopefulness is not always observed or fully appreciated in the literature and has consequently caused much confusion. This paper then sketches what theorizing about hope looks like in light of this clarification and discusses some of its implications.
Keywords hope  hoping  hopefulness
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DOI 10.1111/ejop.12757
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References found in this work BETA

Finding Hope.Michael Milona - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (5):710-729.
A Perceptual Theory of Hope.Michael Milona & Katie Stockdale - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5.
The Value of Hope.Luc Bovens - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):667-681.
The Nature of Hope.Ariel Meirav - 2009 - Ratio 22 (2):216-233.
What is Hope?Jack M. C. Kwong - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):243-254.

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