European Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):892-910 (2020)

James Kinkaid
Boston College
Phenomenologists have no taste for desert landscapes. The early phenomenologists—Edmund Husserl, Max Scheler, and Roman Ingarden—adopt stratified views of reality on which spiritual objects like artifacts and persons are distinct from their underlying matter. Call this view “pluralism.” After describing Scheler, Ingarden, and Husserl's pluralism about goods, literary artworks, and images, respectively, I reconstruct a phenomenological case for pluralism from Husserl's work and defend it against an objection. The phenomenological method reveals a special subset of objects' essential properties: modes of givenness. On Husserl's view, there are necessary correlations between types of objects and the types of intentional acts through which they are given. Spiritual objects, unlike their matter, can only be given in acts belonging to the “personalistic attitude,” which has a motivational and expressive structure. My broader claim is that Husserl's phenomenology is a sophisticated metametaphysical view about the methodology of first‐order metaphysical inquiry.
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DOI 10.1111/ejop.12546
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References found in this work BETA

Logical Investigations.Edmund Husserl & J. N. Findlay - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (13):384-398.
The Nature of Sympathy.Max Scheler, Peter Heath & W. Stark - 1955 - Philosophical Review 64 (4):671-673.
The Statue and the Clay.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 1998 - Noûs 32 (2):149-173.
Experience and Judgment.Edmund Husserl, L. Landgrebe, J. S. Churchill & K. Ameriks - 1973 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 39 (4):712-713.

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Hermeneutics in Heidegger’s Science of Being.James Kinkaid - forthcoming - Southern Journal of Philosophy.

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