Springer Verlag (2018)

Abstract
This book is about religion, pacifism, and the nonviolence that informs pacifism in its most coherent form. Pacifism is one religious approach to war and violence. Another is embodied in just war theories, and both pacifism and just war thinking are critically examined. Although moral support for pacifism is presented, a main focus of the book is on religious support for pacifism, found in various religious traditions. A crucial distinction for pacifism is that between force and violence. Pacifism informed by nonviolence excludes violence, but, the book argues, allows forms of force. Peacekeeping is an activity that on the face of it seems compatible with pacifism, and several different forms of peacekeeping are examined. The implications of nonviolence for the treatment of nonhuman animals are also examined. Two models for attaining the conditions required for a world without war have been proposed. Both are treated and one, the model of a biological human family, is developed. The book concludes with reflections on the role of pacifism in each of five possible futurescapes.
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ISBN(s) 978-3-319-95009-9   978-3-319-95010-5   3030069532   3319950096   9783319950099
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-95010-5
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Chapters BETA
The Costs of War

The costs argument is a supplemental moral argument against war: the terrible costs of war in recent centuries and in the foreseeable future, it is argued, establishes the moral wrongness and evil of modern wars. These costs include the great suffering of civilians in combat operations and the post-... see more

Arguments Against Pacifism and Moral Support for Pacifism

In this chapter some seven arguments against pacifism are presented and answered. These include the arguments that it is internally incoherent, and that it is counter to human nature. Also in this chapter moral support for pacifism is presented. Pretheoretical moral intuitions are divided on pacifis... see more

The Approach of Pacifism

The subject of this chapter is the fourth religious approach to war: the way of pacifism. Pacifism is a central concern of this book, and in the chapters that follow the implications of pacifism – what it requires and what is allows – are discussed, as well as animadversions of pacifism and its mora... see more

The Principle of Double Effect

This chapter is an evaluation of the principle of double effect. The principle of double effect is a principle congenial to the just war theory and is appealed to by just war theorists. It is a principle that under certain circumstances can relieve perpetrators of war actions that inflict suffering ... see more

The Status of the Just War Theory

In this chapter the current status of the just war theory is addressed. Several broad criticisms that can be brought against the just war theory are reviewed. One relates to the sovereignty condition, which requires that a just war be declared by a sovereign . The criticism is that it is questionabl... see more

The Just War Approach

According to the just war tradition, if a war meets certain conditions it is a just war; otherwise it is not. Cicero, drawing upon even earlier sources, provided the nucleus of just war thinking. Later St. Ambrose and St. Augustine presented a Christianized form of the just war idea, and still later... see more

Fighting Militarily in the Name of One’s State and Fighting Militarily in the Name of One’s Religion

This chapter treats the first two of the religiously sanctioned ways of approaching war, bringing out how certain New Testament passages may be cited in apparent support of fighting militarily for one’s country. It is noted how fighting militarily in the name of one’s religion – taking up arms in a ... see more

Ways of Approaching War That Are Sanctioned Within Religious Traditions

The book’s first chapter identifies four ways of approaching war that have been sanctioned within religious traditions. They are: to fight militarily in the name of one’s state, to fight militarily in the name of one’s religion, to follow the way of the just war theory, and to follow the way of paci... see more

Introduction

The ubiquity of war in world history is noted, as are the different types of war, including wars of conquest, civil wars, and religious wars. The interest of the book in the religious repudiation of war and violence is identified, and brief descriptions of the book’s fifteen chapters are provided.

The Future of Pacifism

In this chapter the future of pacifism is contemplated. Five alternative futurescapes are sketched, each a possible scenario for the future. In three of them wars between belligerents continue to take place as either limited conflicts or as a new world war. In the fourth a supranational world order ... see more

Nonviolence Toward Nonhuman Animals

This chapter addresses the scope of pacifism’s nonviolence. Pacifism repudiates the violence of war and all forms of violence toward human beings, including psychological violence. But, this chapter asks, is nonviolence limited to human beings? Does it also apply to nonhuman animals? In the religiou... see more

Families

In this chapter a model for global peace that effectively rules out war will be presented and considered. Thinkers who have contemplated the requirements of a world without war have proposed one of two models. The first is a model of a new world order that does not tolerate international belligerenc... see more

Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping presents itself as a prima facie type of action that pacifism would allow and welcome; and international peacekeeping between belligerents is a recognized role for the United Nations as a supranational organization. Various UN peacekeeping efforts are examined and different modes of pea... see more

Violence and Force

Pacifism in its most coherent form rejects the violence of war and violence in all its manifestations. Nonviolence tautologically rejects violence, but this is not to say that it rejects all uses of force. However, if the nonviolence of pacifism allows force, the question of the difference between v... see more

The Status of Pacifism

The current status of pacifism is considered in this chapter. After the arguments against pacifism presented in Chap. 10.1007/978-3-319-95010-5_7 and their rejoinders have been briefly commented upon, several noteworthy twentieth-century pacifists are cited, including Mahatma Gandhi and Bertrand Rus... see more

Religious Support for Pacifism

When pacifism is understood as the acceptance of nonviolence and the rejection of all war and violence in personal relations and in all its expressions, religious support for pacifism can be found in various world traditions. The subject of this chapter is the multiplicity of religious support for p... see more

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