Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):800-818 (2017)
AbstractWhat is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like “breakfast is above dinner” or “breakfast is below dinner”. In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left–right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right. In both experiments, we asked whether the representations are susceptible to verbal interference. We found that learning new metaphors created new space–time associations that could be detected in a nonlinguistic implicit association task; these newly learned representations were not susceptible to verbal interference; and with respect to both verbal and visual interference, representations newly learned from linguistic metaphor behaved just like those on the left–right axis that our participants had acquired through years of visuospatial experience. Taken together, these results suggest that learning new relational language can be a powerful tool in constructing new representations and expanding our cognitive repertoire.
Similar books and articles
How Linguistic and Cultural Forces Shape Conceptions of Time: English and Mandarin Time in 3D.Orly Fuhrman, Kelly McCormick, Eva Chen, Heidi Jiang, Dingfang Shu, Shuaimei Mao & Lera Boroditsky - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (7):1305-1328.
Cross-Cultural Differences in Mental Representations of Time: Evidence From an Implicit Nonlinguistic Task.Orly Fuhrman & Lera Boroditsky - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1430-1451.
Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Whorf? Crosslinguistic Differences in Temporal Language and Thought.Daniel Casasanto - unknown
Do Chinese and English Speakers Think About Time Differently? Failure of Replicating Boroditsky (2001).Jenn-Yeu Chen - 2007 - Cognition 104 (2):427-436.
Do Nonhuman Animals Have a Language of Thought?Beck Jacob - forthcoming - In The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. Routledge.
Active Perception and the Representation of Space.Mohan Matthen - 2014 - In Dustin Stokes, Mohan Matthen & Stephen Biggs (eds.), Perception and Its Modalities. Oxford University Press. pp. 44-72.
The Continuity of Metaphor: Evidence From Temporal Gestures.Esther Walker & Kensy Cooperrider - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):481-495.
Three Kinds of Rationalism and the Non-Spatiality of Things in Themselves.Desmond Hogan - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (3):pp. 355-382.
Spatial Language as a Window on Representations of Three-Dimensional Space.Kevin J. Holmes & Phillip Wolff - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (5):550-551.
Metaphor.Marga Reimer & Elisabeth Camp - 2006 - In Ernest Lepore & Barry C. Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook to the Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press. pp. 845.
Disentangling Spatial Metaphors for Time Using Non-Spatial Responses and Auditory Stimuli.Esther J. Walker, Benjamin K. Bergen & Rafael Núñez - 2014 - Metaphor and Symbol 29 (4):316-327.
Space Metaphor as a Signifying Force in Chan Poems.Ming-Yu Tseng - 2007 - American Journal of Semiotics 23 (1/4):221-241.
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Citations of this work
Which Is in Front of Chinese People, Past or Future? The Effect of Language and Culture on Temporal Gestures and Spatial Conceptions of Time.Yan Gu, Yeqiu Zheng & Marc Swerts - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (12).
Do Metaphors Move From Mind to Mouth? Evidence From a New System of Linguistic Metaphors for Time.Rose K. Hendricks, Benjamin K. Bergen & Tyler Marghetis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2950-2975.
Time Will Tell: Temporal Landmarks Influence Metaphorical Associations Between Space and Time.Heng Li & Yu Cao - 2018 - Cognitive Linguistics 29 (4):677-701.
The Influence of Event Valence and Emotional States on the Metaphorical Comprehension of Time.Weiqi Zheng, Ye Liu, Chang Hong Liu, Yu-Hsin Chen, Qian Cui & Xiaolan Fu - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
References found in this work
Metaphoric Structuring: Understanding Time Through Spatial Metaphors.Lera Boroditsky - 2000 - Cognition 75 (1):1-28.
With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time.Rafael E. Núñez & Eve Sweetser - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (3):401-450.
Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think About Time Differently?Lera Boroditsky, Orly Fuhrman & Kelly McCormick - 2011 - Cognition 118 (1):123-129.
Bootstrapping the Mind: Analogical Processes and Symbol Systems.Dedre Gentner - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):752-775.