Asian Philosophy 29 (2):116-127 (2019)

Fan He
Bristol University
ABSTRACTThe graph tong同and its associated concepts, such as da-tong and xuan-tong, have played important roles in the development of Chinese philosophy. Yet tong has received scant attention from either western or eastern scholarships. This paper is a first attempt to remedy such regret. Unlike usual understandings of tong as sameness or unity, this paper presents a nuanced account from early China, that is, ‘difference to one,’ a definition from the Mozi墨子. This definition can be supported from etymological, textual, and lexical evidence. ‘Difference to one’ should not be solely attributed to a Mohist understanding; it in fact represents a common understanding of tong across philosophical streams in early China. This nuanced account provides new insights into the concept of tong in early philosophical texts, and furthermore breaks solid grounds for further studies of tong and its associated concepts.
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DOI 10.1080/09552367.2019.1616381
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References found in this work BETA

The Confucian Philosophy of Harmony.Chenyang Li - 2014 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
The Mozi: A Complete Translation.Ian Johnston (ed.) - 2010 - Columbia University Press.

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