From a phenomenological viewpoint, shame and guilt may be regarded as emotions which have incorporated the gaze and the voice of the other, respectively. The spontaneous and unreflected performance of the primordial bodily self has suffered a rupture: In shame or guilt we are rejected, separated from the others, and thrown back on ourselves. This reflective turn of spontaneous experience is connected with an alienation of primordial bodiliness that may be described as a "corporealization": The lived-body is changed into the objective, corporeal body or "body-for-others." The polarity of "bodiliness" and "corporeality" may further a phenomenological understanding of several mental disorders connected with shame and guilt. This is shown by the examples of body dysmorphic disorder and melancholic depression.
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DOI 10.1163/15691620260622903
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Depression, Guilt and Emotional Depth.Matthew Ratcliffe - 2010 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 53 (6):602-626.
Temporal Experience in Anxiety: Embodiment, Selfhood, and the Collapse of Meaning.Kevin Aho - 2020 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 19 (2):259-270.
The Psychopathology of Hyperreflexivity.Thomas Fuchs - 2010 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (3):239-255.
Illness and Two Meanings of Phenomenology.Horaţiu Traian Crişan & Ion Copoeru - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (2):425-430.

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