Gambling on the unconscious: A comparison of wagering and confidence ratings as measures of awareness in an artificial grammar task☆

Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):674-681 (2010)
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We explore three methods for measuring the conscious status of knowledge using the artificial grammar learning paradigm. We show wagering is no more sensitive to conscious knowledge than simple verbal confidence reports but is affected by risk aversion. When people wager rather than give verbal confidence they are less ready to indicate high confidence. We introduce a “no-loss gambling” method which is insensitive to risk aversion. We show that when people are just as ready to bet on a genuine random process as their own classification decisions, their classifications are still above baseline, indicating knowledge participants are not aware of having. Our results have methodological implications for any study investigating whether people are aware of knowing



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Consciousness and Mind.David M. Rosenthal - 2005 - New York: Oxford University Press UK.
Implicit learning and tacit knowledge.Arthur S. Reber - 1989 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118 (3):219-235.
The Matter of Chance.D. H. Mellor - 1971 - New York: Cambridge University Press. Edited by D. H. Mellor.

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