The Journal of Ethics 13 (1):73 - 100 (2009)

Michael Davis
Illinois Institute of Technology
This paper describes developments in punishment theory since the middle of the twentieth century. After the mid–1960s, what Stanley I. Benn called “preventive theories of punishment”—whether strictly utilitarian or more loosely consequentialist like his—entered a long and steep decline, beginning with the virtual disappearance of reform theory in the 1970s. Crowding out preventive theories were various alternatives generally (but, as I shall argue, misleadingly) categorized as “retributive”. These alternatives include both old theories (such as the education theory) resurrected after many decades in philosophy’s graveyard and some new ones (such as the fairness theory). Only in the last decade or so have new vares o “consequentialism” appeared to dilute a debate among philosophers that had become almost entirely about “retributivism”. I shall describe this trend in more detail. The description will be less an update of my 1990 survey than a rethinking of it. The conclusion I draw from this rethinking is that we need to drop the utilitarian–retributivist (and nonconsequentialist–nonconsequentialist) distinction in favor of one sorting punishment theories according to whether they rely in part on empirical considerations (externalist theories) or instead rely (almost) entirely on conceptual relations (internalist theories).
Keywords Retributive  Utilitarian  Consequentialist  Nonconsequentialist  Conceptual  Empirical  Kant
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DOI 10.1007/s10892-008-9040-0
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Citations of this work BETA

Punishing 'Dirty Hands'—Three Justifications.Stephen Wijze - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):879-897.
Fairness-Based Retributivism Reconsidered.Göran Duus-Otterström - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (3):481-498.
Terrorists Are Just Patients.Michael Davis - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (10):56-57.
Retributivism and Resources.Jesper Ryberg - 2013 - Utilitas 25 (1):66-79.
What Punishment for the Murder of 10,000?Michael Davis - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (2):101-118.

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