The Algebraic Structure of an Approximately Universal System of Quantum Computational Gates

Foundations of Physics 39 (6):559-572 (2009)
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Shi and Aharonov have shown that the Toffoli gate and the Hadamard gate give rise to an approximately universal set of quantum computational gates. We study the basic algebraic properties of this system by introducing the notion of Shi-Aharonov quantum computational structure. We show that the quotient of this structure is isomorphic to a structure based on a particular set of complex numbers (the closed disc with center \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(\frac{1}{2},\frac{1}{2})$\end{document} and radius \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\frac{1}{2}$\end{document} ).



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