Anna Cremaldi
Appalachian State University
Jack M. C. Kwong
Appalachian State University
This paper develops and defends an anger-based account of bitterness. In particular, it argues that contrary to what some scholars have maintained, an adequate account of bitterness does not require the concept of hope. That is, bitterness is neither disappointed hope (McFall) nor hopeless anger (Stockdale). Instead, it proposes that bitterness is better understood as unresolved anger, an emotion experienced when a lack of resolution to our violated moral expectations forces us to swallow our anger. Construing the emotion this way not only accurately captures instances of bitterness, but is also more explanatorily adequate than competing accounts.
Keywords bitterness  hope  anger  emotions
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/josp.12455
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Finding Hope.Michael Milona - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (5):710-729.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Hope Under Oppression.Katie Stockdale - 2021 - New York: Oxford University Press.
Hope and Hopefulness.Jack M. C. Kwong - 2020 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 50 (7):832-843.
Melancholia and Hope: Alternatives or Opposites?Alicja Kuczyńska - 2018 - Dialogue and Universalism 28 (1):23-40.
What is Hope?Jack M. C. Kwong - 2019 - European Journal of Philosophy 27 (1):243-254.
Analysing Hope : The Live Possibility Account.Carl Johan Palmqvist - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
Analysing Hope: The Live Possibility Account.Carl-Johan Palmqvist - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):685-698.
Hope in Christianity.Anne Jeffrey - 2019 - In Titus Stahl & Claudia Blöser (eds.), The Moral Psychology of Hope. London: pp. 37-56.
The Logical Structure of Hope.Tian-qun Pan - 2013 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 13 (3):457-462.
Philosophy of Hope.Michael Milona - 2020 - In Steven C. Van den Heuvel (ed.), Historical and Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Hope. Springer. pp. 99-116.
What May I Hope? Why It Can Be Rational to Rely on One’s Hope.Döring Sabine - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (3):117--129.
Social Hope and State Lawlessness.Norman Geras - 2008 - Critical Horizons 9 (1):90-98.
Kierkegaard on the Metaphysics of Hope.Roe Fremstedal - 2012 - Heythrop Journal 53 (1):51-60.
Hope: The Core of Social Justice.Emily K. Locke - 2020 - Dissertation, Providence College
The Value of Hope.Luc Bovens - 1999 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):667-681.


Added to PP index

Total views
54 ( #208,190 of 2,498,570 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
44 ( #19,361 of 2,498,570 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes